(Syllabus) RAS Pre-Syllabus: Dairy Processing & Technology (Code No. 11)

Rajasthan Public Service Commission

RAS Pre-Syllabus: Dairy Processing & Technology (Code No. 11)

Current status of dairy animals and milk production; utilization and consumption in India and Rajasthan. Milk plants and milk product factories in India and Rajasthan. Set up of State Cooperative Dairy Federations and their functions. Amul pattern of Cooperative dairying. Agencies engaged in dairy development like; NDDB, NCDFI, IDA and Educational & Research Institutions. Problems of milk supplies in cities. Recent development in Dairy and food industry.

Functions of Food in the Body, Food digestion, absorption and assimilation. Nutrient requirements, Composition of milk and fractions of major milk Constituents. Important properties of milk fat, milk proteins, lactose enzymes, vitamins and minerals. Chemical changes in milk during storage. Milk intolerance, anti-nutritional factors, food contaminants & toxic trace elements. Principles of cleaning & sanitization of dairy equipments and utensils. Contamination of milk and diseases transmitted through milk, Types of microorganisms in milk, spoilage of milk. Tests used to assess the microbial quality of milk and microbial standards. Market milk and its processing, packaging & marketing.

Composition, defects, standards and important manufacturing steps of cream of different grades, Butter, ice-cream, concentrated and dried milks, cheese and indigenous milk products. Properties of fluid milk & foods, powders and thermal properties of frozen foods. Food dehydration, Freeze dehydration. Packaging material, their characteristic & evaluation, packaging forms & labelling. Membrane processing.

Properties and materials, used in dairy machinery equipment design. Chemical properties of fuels & calorific value. Properties of steam, steam generators, operation and maintenance of boilers, Air Compressors.

Refrigeration, its principle, importance, properties of refrigerants, direct and brine circulation systems. Engineering properties of food materials, system analysis and energy balance. Constructional & Operational features of fluid milk handling equipment, heat exchangers, cream separators and triprocessors, homogenizers, sterilizers andevaporators & dryers, pasteurizers, washers, packaging equipment, membrane process  equipment., Freezing & CIP equipment.

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