(Syllabus) RAS Syllabus (Main): Anthropology (Code No. 31)

Rajasthan Public Service Commission

RAS Syllabus (Main): Anthropology (Code No. 31)

Anthropology Paper-I

1. Meaning, nature and scope of Anthropology.

2. Main branches of Anthropology and relationship of Anthropology with other sciences.

3. Human Evolution, Emergence of Man and Variation.
(a) Foundation of the theory of organic evolution : Lamarckism, Neo- Lamarckism, Darwinism and Synthetic theory.
(b) Human Evolution : Biological, Social and Cultural Dimensions.
(c) The Order Primate : Its evolutionary tendencies (i.e. characteristics), classification and distribution. A comparative study of primates with special reference to the anthropological aspects of man.
(d) Fossil evidence for human evolution: Dryopethecus, Ramapithecus Australopithrecines, Homo erectus, Pithecanthropines, Homosapiens, Noanderthalensis and Homo sapiens.
(e) Genetics: Definition : The Mendelian principles and their application to human populations.
(f) Human Variation : Racial differentiation of man and bases of racial classification-morphological, serological and genetic. Role of heredity and environment in the formation of races.

4. Cultural Evolution- broad outlines of pre-historic cultures:
(a) Palacolithic
(b) Mesolithic
(c) Neolithic
(d) Chalcolithic
(e) Copper-Bronze age
(f) Iron age

5. (a) Family-Definition and typology of family, household and domestic groups. Basic structure and functions; stability and changes in family. Typological and processual approaches to the study of family. Impact of urbanization, industrialization, education and feminist movements. Universality of family - a critique.
(b) Marriage - Definition, types and variation of marriage systems.Debates on the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of marriage-preferential, prescriptive, proscriptive and open systems. Types and form of marriage, Dowry, bride-price pestation and marriage stability.
(c) Concept of kinship ; Definition of kin, incest prohibition, exogamy and endogamy. Principles of descent-types and functions. Political and jural aspects of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent. Descent, filiation and complementary filiaion, Kinship terminology, Typology and approaches to the study of terminology. Alliance and Descent.

6. (a) Concept of culture, patterns of culture, relationships between culture and civilization and society.
(b) Concept of Society, Social Change and Cultural Change.
(c) Social structure and social organization, groups, community. Social stratification: Principles and form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types of mobility.
(d) Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical evolutionism, neo-evolutionism, culture ecology, historical particularism and diffusionism, structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transactionalism, symbolism, congnitive approach and new etinography, post structuralism and post-modernism.

7. Definitions and functions of religion. Anthropological approaches to the study of religion-evolutionary, psychological and functional. Magic, witchcraft and sorcery: definition functions and functionaries: priest, saman,medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and  rituals. Ethnomedicine. Myths and Rituals definition and approaches to their study-structural, functional and processual relation with economic and political structure.

8. (a) Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing production, distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting- gathering, floating, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Fomalist and substantivist : debate-Dalton, Karlpolyanny and Marxian approach and New Economic Anthropology. Exchange gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market economy.
(b) Theoretical foundations. Types of political organizations-bank, tribe, chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law and justice in tribal and peasant societies.

9. Concepts of development: Anthropological perspective. Models of development. Critiques of classical development theories. Concepts of planning and planned development. Concept of panicipaiory development. Culture ecology and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.

10. Concept of research in anthropology, subjectivity and reflexivity in terms of gender, class, ideology and ethics. Distinction between methodology, methods and techniques. Nature and explanation in anthropological research. Positivistic and non-positivistic approaches. Comparative methods: nature, purpose and methods of comparison in social and cultural anthropology, Basic techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study methods, extended case-study methods, life histories and secondary sources, oral history, genealogical methods, Participatory Learning and Assessment (PLA). Participatory Rapid  Assessment (PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

Anthropology Paper-II

1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization - Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post- Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.

2. Demographic profile of India - Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its structure and growth.

3. Critical understanding of the basic concepts and approaches to the study of Indian Civilization : Little tradition and great tradition; Universalization and Parochialization: Sanskitization, Westernization, Tribe-cast continuum. Ethnosociological and traditional Indian cosmocentric perspective.

4. The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system - a critique. Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth. Theories of the origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural bases of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on India society.

5. (a) Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture - traditional contemporary.
(b) Aspects of Indian village- Social organizations of agricultural, impact of market economy on Indian villages.
(c) Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.

6. Ethnographic profiles of Indian tribes : demographic, racial, linguistic, economic and social-organizations dimensions.

7. Development of forest policy and tribals, impact of urbanization and industrialization or tribal and rural populations.

8. Problems of tribal peoples : land-alienation, bonded labour, indebtedness; shifting cultivation; irrigation; forest and tribal unemployment; agricultural labour, tribal revolts, minor tribes. Different approaches and measuresadopted to solve tribal problems  including constitutional provisions. Development projects, tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation.

9. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Social change and contemporary Scheduled Castes: Impact of modern democratic institution, development programs and welfare measures on Scheduled Castes and weaker sections. Emergence of Ethnicity, dalit and trial movements and quest for identity.

10. Social change among the dalits and tribesduring colonial and postindependence India. Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on dalit and tribal societies.

11. (a) History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programs of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.
(b) Role of anthropology in the development of Scheduled Castes, dalits and tribals.
(c) Contributions of anthropology to the understanding or regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.

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