Rajasthan Public Service Commission
RAS Syllabus (Main): Anthropology (Code No. 31)
1. Meaning, nature and scope of Anthropology.
2. Main branches of Anthropology and relationship of Anthropology with
3. Human Evolution, Emergence of Man and Variation.
(a) Foundation of the theory of organic evolution : Lamarckism, Neo- Lamarckism,
Darwinism and Synthetic theory.
(b) Human Evolution : Biological, Social and Cultural Dimensions.
(c) The Order Primate : Its evolutionary tendencies (i.e. characteristics),
classification and distribution. A comparative study of primates with special
reference to the anthropological aspects of man.
(d) Fossil evidence for human evolution: Dryopethecus, Ramapithecus
Australopithrecines, Homo erectus, Pithecanthropines, Homosapiens,
Noanderthalensis and Homo sapiens.
(e) Genetics: Definition : The Mendelian principles and their application to
(f) Human Variation : Racial differentiation of man and bases of racial
classification-morphological, serological and genetic. Role of heredity and
environment in the formation of races.
4. Cultural Evolution- broad outlines of pre-historic cultures:
(e) Copper-Bronze age
(f) Iron age
5. (a) Family-Definition and typology of family, household and
domestic groups. Basic structure and functions; stability and changes in family.
Typological and processual approaches to the study of family. Impact of
urbanization, industrialization, education and feminist movements. Universality
of family - a critique.
(b) Marriage - Definition, types and variation of marriage systems.Debates on
the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of marriage-preferential,
prescriptive, proscriptive and open systems. Types and form of marriage, Dowry,
bride-price pestation and marriage stability.
(c) Concept of kinship ; Definition of kin, incest prohibition, exogamy and
endogamy. Principles of descent-types and functions. Political and jural aspects
of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent. Descent, filiation and
complementary filiaion, Kinship terminology, Typology and approaches to the
study of terminology. Alliance and Descent.
6. (a) Concept of culture, patterns of culture, relationships between
culture and civilization and society.
(b) Concept of Society, Social Change and Cultural Change.
(c) Social structure and social organization, groups, community. Social
stratification: Principles and form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and
types of mobility.
(d) Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical evolutionism,
neo-evolutionism, culture ecology, historical particularism and diffusionism,
structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transactionalism, symbolism,
congnitive approach and new etinography, post structuralism and post-modernism.
7. Definitions and functions of religion. Anthropological approaches
to the study of religion-evolutionary, psychological and functional. Magic,
witchcraft and sorcery: definition functions and functionaries: priest,
saman,medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and rituals.
Ethnomedicine. Myths and Rituals definition and approaches to their
study-structural, functional and processual relation with economic and political
8. (a) Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing production,
distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting- gathering,
floating, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Fomalist and
substantivist : debate-Dalton, Karlpolyanny and Marxian approach and New
Economic Anthropology. Exchange gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and
(b) Theoretical foundations. Types of political organizations-bank, tribe,
chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law
and justice in tribal and peasant societies.
9. Concepts of development: Anthropological perspective. Models of
development. Critiques of classical development theories. Concepts of planning
and planned development. Concept of panicipaiory development. Culture ecology
and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.
10. Concept of research in anthropology, subjectivity and reflexivity
in terms of gender, class, ideology and ethics. Distinction between methodology,
methods and techniques. Nature and explanation in anthropological research.
Positivistic and non-positivistic approaches. Comparative methods: nature,
purpose and methods of comparison in social and cultural anthropology, Basic
techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of
observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study methods, extended case-study
methods, life histories and secondary sources, oral history, genealogical
methods, Participatory Learning and Assessment (PLA). Participatory Rapid
Assessment (PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization - Prehistoric (Palaeolithic,
Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post-
Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.
2. Demographic profile of India - Ethnic and linguistic elements in the
Indian population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing
its structure and growth.
3. Critical understanding of the basic concepts and approaches to the
study of Indian Civilization : Little tradition and great tradition; Universalization and Parochialization: Sanskitization, Westernization,
Tribe-cast continuum. Ethnosociological and traditional Indian cosmocentric
4. The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system -
a critique. Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth. Theories of the
origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural bases of inequality in
traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity
on India society.
5. (a) Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture -
(b) Aspects of Indian village- Social organizations of agricultural, impact of
market economy on Indian villages.
(c) Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.
6. Ethnographic profiles of Indian tribes : demographic, racial,
linguistic, economic and social-organizations dimensions.
7. Development of forest policy and tribals, impact of urbanization
and industrialization or tribal and rural populations.
8. Problems of tribal peoples : land-alienation, bonded labour,
indebtedness; shifting cultivation; irrigation; forest and tribal unemployment;
agricultural labour, tribal revolts, minor tribes. Different approaches and
measuresadopted to solve tribal problems including constitutional
provisions. Development projects, tribal displacement and problems of
9. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled
Castes/Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards
for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Social change and contemporary
Scheduled Castes: Impact of modern democratic institution, development programs
and welfare measures on Scheduled Castes and weaker sections. Emergence of
Ethnicity, dalit and trial movements and quest for identity.
10. Social change among the dalits and tribesduring colonial and
postindependence India. Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other
religions on dalit and tribal societies.
11. (a) History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies,
plans, programs of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.
(b) Role of anthropology in the development of Scheduled Castes, dalits and
(c) Contributions of anthropology to the understanding or regionalism,
communalism and ethnic and political movements.
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