Rajasthan Public Service Commission
RAS Syllabus (Main): Dairy Processing & Technology (Code No.
Dairy Processing & Technology Paper-I
Principles and processes of food preservation. Food from non-conventional
sources, Processing of Fluid milk. Special milks. Manufacture of various types
of indigenous milk products and changes occurring during manufacture and
storage. Processes & principles of the manufacture of ice-cream, high fat
products, cheese, fermented milks, concentrated milk and dried milk products.
Structure and properties of milk powder. Sensory evaluation and judging of milk
and milk products. Various defects in milk and milk properties. Types of
packaging material and their properties. Packaging forms and operations.
Problems in food packaging. Legal requirements of packaging and labeling dairy
products. Disposal of waste package material. Recent developments in packaging
dairy and food products.
Production planning net work scheduling, manpower planning and job
evaluation, Inventory Control. Dairy Plant maintenance, operational precautions
and preventive maintenance. Effluent treatment. Consumer behavior, theory of
demand, theory of production economics and price determination. Product planning
and development, Market information and intelligence, Marketing channels; Market
forecasting. Market regulations.
Material and sanitary feature of the dairy equipments, sanitary pipes and
fittings cleaning and sanitization, Bottle washers, can washers, CIP, mechanical
separation, Homogenization Theory of Homogenization, Homogenization equipments,
Pasteurization, Pasteurizers, Reaction kinetics, sterilizers, packing milk and
milk products, mixing and agitation equipment Principles of evaporation, milk
evaporation, Drying principles, milk drying equipments, Fluidization and
membrance processing used in Dairy Industry. Principles of Dairy Plant Layout
and Design, space requirement, floor plans, functional design, Layout of small,
medium, and large size plant, choice of building construction. Problem solving
through computers. File organization, organization issues and MIS centralized
dispersal of data processing d Base III, Lotus 1-2-3 upto graphics FORTRAN,
Logical operation and transfer statement.
Dairy Processing & Technology Paper-II
Composition and physico-chemical, and nutritional properties of milk and
colostrum. Chemistry of milk constituents. Various standards of milk and milk
products. Tests for the quality of milk, butte, ghee, milk powder etc.
Adulterants in milk and ghee and their detection. Neuortralizers and
preservatives and their detection. Heat stability of milk, Composition and
Chemistry of cream, butter, ghee, ice-cream, cheese, condensed and dried milks.
Spoilage of ghee and use of anti-oxidants. Chemistry of milk fermentation.
Chemistry of rennin coagulation of milk and changes during ripening of cheese.
Physico-chemical changes in the manufacture and storage of milk powder. Lactose
crystallization and its significance. Chemical tests for milk quality. Physico-chemical
changes during the manufacture of indigenous milk products. Chemistry and
mechanism of different additives, preservatives, flavours and anti-oxidants.
Classification of Dairy organisms based on growth temperature-psychrotrophs,
mesophiles, thermodurics and thermophiles, spoilages of milk by the above groups
and their control. Undesirable fermentations - souring, curdling, proteolysis,
Lipolysis and abnormal flavour and their control. Bacteriostatic and
bactericidal properties of milk. Classification of lactic starter culture:
activity, defects and their uses in the preparation of fermented milk-dahi,
yoghurt, acidophilus milk, koumiss, kefir and cheddar cheese, spoilages and
their control. Microbiological tests for grading of raw milk. Microbiology of
cream; factors affecting quality of cream; defected and their control.
Microbiological changes during storages of butter; defects and their control.
Incidence and implications of entere Pathogenic organisms in ice-cream and their
control. Types of microbiological spoilage and control in condensed milk.
Microbiological quality of dried milk and infant foods. Microbiological
standards of dairy products. Quality of water supplies to dairy plants and the
tests. Sanitation control in dairy plants. Genetic manipulation of dairy
starters and their improvement. Microbiology of indigenous milk products.
Quality control tests, tests for abnormal milks and concept of HACCP.
Therapeutic properties of fermented milk products. Utilization 0f dairy by
products by microbial fermentations.
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