Rajasthan Public Service Commission
RAS Syllabus (Main): Geology (Code No. 16)
I. Physical Geology and Geotectonics :
The solar system and its members. The planet earth in relation to solar
system. Shape, size and origin of the earth. Internal Constitution of the earth
and composition of curst, mantle and core. Age of the earth. Weathering. erosion
and denudation. Geological work of river, glacier, wind, sea and ground water.
Earthquake. Their causes, effects and distribution, ceismic belts and their
relation to volcanic activity. Earthquake waves and their significance in the
study of interior of the earth.
Volcanoes : their types, products, distribution and causes of volcanism.
Morphology of continents and ocean basins and their distribution. Elementary
ideas of sea-floor spreading and theory of plate tectonics. Classification and
origin of mountains; shields, platforms, island arcs, deep, oceanic trenches,
rift valleys, mid-oceanic ridges, geosynclines, diastrophic forces, palaeo-magnetism,
isostasy and continental drift. Ice ages and past climates. Coral reefs and
II. Geomorphology :
Basic concepts and significance. Land forms : their types and nature of
development; land forms in relation to structures and drainage patterns. Major
geomorphological sub-divisions of India; their characteristics and evolution.
III. Structural Geology :
Dip, strike, slope, pitch and plunge. Effect of topography on the outcrops.
Description and use of clinometer compass.
Bedding and determination of top and bottom of beds.
Morphology and classification of folds and faults and criteria of their
recognition in the field. Effect of folding and faulting on the outcrops.
Elementary ideas of mechanics of folding and faulting. Distinction between
faults and unconformities.
Unconformities, their kinds and criteria of recongnition in the field; overlap;
off lap, outliners and inliers; characteristics and types of cleavage,
schistosity, foliation, lineation and joints. Saltdomes. Common igneous
intrusive and extrusive bodies.
IV. Palaeontology :
Mode of preservation and utility of fossils. Collection and preservation of
fossils. Elementary idea of organic evolution.
Morphology, geological distribution and study of important genera of
Graptoloidea, Echinoidea, Actinozoa (Corals), Gastropoda, Lamellibranchia (Bivalvia),
Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Cephalopoda and Forminifera. An elementary knowledge of
important Gondawana fossils, vertebrate fauna of Siwaliks of India and
elementary idea of the evolution of man, elephant and horse.
V. Principles of stratigraphy and structure and Tectonics of India :
Standard stratigraphic tiem scale and its Indian equivalents. Principles of
stratigraphic correlation, elementary knowledge of stratigraphic classification.
Major tectonic sub-divisions of India. Study of tectonic features of India. The
Aravalli trend, the Dharwar trend, the Eastern Ghat trend, the Satpura trend,
the Mahanadi trend, the Assam Wedge and the Kashmir Wedge.
Structure and tectonics of India during Purana and Gondwana period. Study of the
tectonic sub-divisions of Himalayas and its adjacent regions. Structure and
tectonics of Eastern and Western coasts of India. Orogenic bells in India.
Ceismic zones of India. Origin of Himalayas. Indogangetic plain and desert in
VI. Geology of India :
Brief study of Precambrian Geology of Peninsular and Extra Peninsular India
with reference to their eitho-stratigraphy, distribution, classification, fossil
content and economic importance. Study of Cuddapahs. Vindhyan Suergroup
Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Quarternary and Gondawana geology of India with
reference to their litho-stratigraphy, classification, distribution, conditions
of deposition, structure and tectonics, climate and sedimentation,
palaeogeography, fauna and flora, correlation and economic significance.
I. Crystallography :
The Fundamental laws of crystallography, elements of crystal symmetry,
Millers and Weiss system of notations, crystal forms, classification o crystal
systems, laws of twinning, use of contact goniometer.
Study of following crystal classes : Cubic or Isometric system : Galena type,
Pyrite type and Tetrahedrite type; Tetragonal system :
Zirocon type Hexagonal system: Beryl type, Calcite type, Tourmaline type and
Quartz type. Orthorhombic system : barites type; Monoclinic system : Gypsum
type; Triclinic system; Axinite type.
Crystal Chemistry : Bonding forces in crystalsionic bond, covalent bond .
Vaderwalls bond, metallic bond, coordination principle crystal structure,
crystal lattice, atomic substitution, solid solution and exsolution.
II. Mineralogy :
Physical, chemical and optical characters of important silicate minerals.
Concept of isomorphism and polymorphism, elementary ideas about the structure
and classification of silicate minerals. Study of physical, chemical and optical
properties of the following mineral groups; Quartz, Felspar, Felspathoid,
Olivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Mica, Chlorite and Garnet, Study of physical
properties and chemical composition of important ore minerals.
Construction of petrological microscope and its accessories, Principles of
optics as applied to study of minerals, nicol prism, birefringence, pleochroism,
absorption, extinction, uniaxial and biaxial characteristics of minerals.
Optical orientation, convergent light and interference figures of optically
uniaxial and biaxial miners.
III. Igneous Petrology :
Elementary knowledge of the constitution and composition of magmas. Forms
structures of Igneous rocks. Phase rule, Crystallisation of unicomponent and
bicomponent silicate melts. Crystallisation of basaltic magma. Bown's reaction
series. Textures of igneous rocks and their significance; classification of
igneous rocks. Magmatic differnectiation and assimilation. Petrographic features
and petrogenesis of common igneous rocks.
IV. Sedimentary Petrology :
Processes of formation of sedimentary rocks. Lithification and diagenesis.
Heavy minerals-their separation and significance. Structures and textures of
sedimentary rocks Grain size distribution and its geological significance,
Shape, sphericity and roundness of grain. Classification of sedimentary rocks.
Sedimentary environments and characteristic of their products in fluvial,
deltaic, shoreline-shelf and desert environments. Petrography and petrogenesis
of common sedimentary rocks.
V. Metamorphic Petrology :
Agents and kinds of metamorphism; concept of depth zones, facies and grades
of metamorphism. Structures, textures and classification of metamorphic rocks.
Regional and thermal metamorphism of argillaccous, calcareous, arenaceous, mafic
and ultramafic rocks and their products. Cataclastic metamorphism, plutonic
ultrametamorphism, retrograde metamorphism and injection metamorphism and their
products. Anatexis and palingenesis, metasomatism and its products. Petrography
and ptrogenesis of important metamorphic rocks. Elementary ideas of the origin
of granites and migmatites.
VI. Economic Geology :
Magma and its relation to mineral deposits. Elementary knowledge of the
following processes of ore genesis :
Magmatic concentration, contact-metasomatism, hydrothermal,
sedimentationevaporation, oxidation and supergene fulfide enrichment, mechanical
concentration, residual, enrichment and metamorphism.
Mode of occurrences, distribution, uses and origin of important metallic mineral
deposits of India, viz., Gold , Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Aluminium,
chromium and Tungsten.
Mode of occurrence, distribution, uses and genesis of non-metallic mineral
deposits of India, viz, refractories, abrasives, ceramics, glass making gem,
fertilizer, chemical and other industrial mineral of India, including coal,
petroleum and radioactive minerals.
VII. Applied Geology :
Elementary knowledge of geological and geophysical prospecting of minerals.
Elements of ground water geology. Role of geology in civil engineering projects.
Elementary knowledge of surveying instruments and their use. Concept of
geological mapping and use of topographic maps in geology. Elementary knowledge
of mineral dressing and application of photogeological techniques.
VIII. Geology and Mineral Wealth of Rajasthan :
Litho-stratigraphic units of the geology of Rajasthan,. major tectonic and
structural features of Rajasthan geology. Study of Banded Gneissic Complex.
Berach granites (Bundelkhand Genesis), Aravalli Super group, Delhi Super group,
Erinpura granites and Malani suite of igneous rocks, mafic, ultramafic, alkaline
and acid igneous activity in Rajasthan.
Study of Vindhyan Supergroup, Marwar Supergroup, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary
and Quarternary rock formations of Rajasthan with reference to their
classification, distribution, fossil content, structure, palceogeography,
climatic condition, sedimentation and economic importance. Mineral wealth of
Rajasthan and major mineral based Industries of the State, Major mining regions,
dams, reservoirs, engineering projects, hydro-electric projects, thermal power
plants and fuel resources and ground water potential of the State.
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