Rajasthan Public Service Commission
RAS Syllabus (Main): Philosophy (Code No. 23)
1. Veda and Upanisad : The development of Vedic thought-polytheism,
henotheism, monotheism and monism; The nature of Reality atman and Brahman,
their identity, the concept of self -realization.
2. Non-vedic Schools of thought :
(a) Charvaka epistemology and metaphysics.
(b) Jainism- anekatavada, syadvada, dravya guna and paryaya, the classification
of dravyas, bondage and liberation.
(c) Buddhism- pratitysamutpada, anatmavada, ksanikavada (momentariness),
3. Nyaya, Vaisesika and Purva Mimamsa:
Nyaya system : prama, pramana and its types, paratah pramanyavada;
anyathakhyati vada, asatkaryavada, proofs for the existence of God Vaisesika
metaphysics: the types of padarthas (categoris), paramanuvada.
Purvamimamsa : arthapatti and anupalabdhi as independent sources of knowledge,
svatahpramanyavada, akhyati and viparitakhyati.
4. Samkhya and Yoga : purusa and prakrti-
Proofs for their existence, plurality of purusa, the doctrine of evolution,
satkaryavada, bondage and liberation, the nature of yoga and astanga yoga
satkaryavada, bondage and liberation, the nature of yoga and astanga yoga.
5. Vendnta - Samkara and Ramanuja:
Brahman and the world according to Samkara and Ramanuja, mayavada and its
critique, bondage and liberation according to Samkara and Ramanuja.
6. Modern Indian Thought : Sri Aurabinda, Tagore, Gandhi and
1. The nature and object of philosophical enquiry : philosophy and its
place in life and culture; philosophy religion and science.
2. Scratic view of Virtue, Polato's theory of Justice, Utilitarianism
of Bentham and Mill, Kant's Moral theory. The problem of free will and
3. Bhagvad Gita - Svadharma, niskma karmayoga; purusartha-dharma,
artha, kama and moksa, Gandhian ethics -non-violence, truth and satyagrha,
trusteeship and servodaya; ends and means.
4. Plato : The problem of Being and Becoming - theory of ideas,
knowledge and opinion, Aristotle : Doctrine of causation, Matter and Form.
5. Descrats; Philosophical method - search for self-evident principle,
proofs for the existence of God.
Spinoz : Doctrine of substance, attributes and modes.
Leiblitz : Monadology, the doctrine of Pre-established harmony.
The problem of mind and body relation according to the rationalists.
6. Locke : The doctrine of Substance : Primary and secondary quality,.
refutation of Matter, Esseest percipi, the subjective Idealist position. Hume :
doctrine of causation, refutation of substance.
7. Kant : Critique of rationalism and Empricism, thje problem of space
and time, categories of understanding, phenomena and Noumeva.
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