Algae in diversified habitats (Terrestrial, fresh water, marine);
Thallus organization, Cell structure and reproduction; criteria in
classification of Algae; Economic Importance of Algae.
General characteristic of Fungi, Cell ultra structure, cell wall
compostion, reproduction, hatrothallism, parasexuality, recent trends in
classification, economic importance of fungi, mycorrhizae and lichens.
Archaebacteria, eubacteria and cyanobacteria, ultra structure and
reproduction, Prions, L-Forms, Viriordes, characteristics and ultra
structure of virions, Mycoplasma and Phytoplasma - General characterisaiton
and role in causing planet diseases, microbiology of water, air, soil and
General account of diseases caused by plant pathogens, molecular basis
of host parasite interaction, pathogen attack and defence mechanism,
diseases of important field crops of Rajasthan (Red rot of Sugar cane, rust
of wheat, covered smart of wheat, loose smart of wheat, green ear disease of
bazra, leaf sport and smart of jawar ergot and smart of bazra, root knot and
rot diseases of vegetables); diseases management, role of nformation
General characters, structure, reproduction, evolution and
interrelationships in Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gynospersm Evolution of
Stele; Heterospory and seed habit, principles of palaeo botany.
Taxonomic hieraechy, principles of nomenclature, Taxonomic tools,
important systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and prantl,
Hutchinson and Takhtaran) Role of morphology, anatomy, embryology,
palynology, cytology, phytochemistry, genom analysis and nucleic acid
hybridization in taxonomy, taxonomy of some selected facilities of Rajasthan
(Leguminoceae cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadeceae, solonaceae,
Euphyrbiaceae and Poaceae), phylogeny of Angiosperm.
General concept of plant morphology - origion and evolution of flower.
premitive living angiosperms, foliar stamens, open carpels, organization of
root and shoot apical meristems.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, folier pistial
interaction, fertilization, endosperm development and embryogenesis, seed
development and fruit formation, polyembryny apomixis, embryo culture,
biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.
Basic concepts of ecology, ecological factors affecting plant growth,
community characteristics, community classification, continuum concept,
ecological niche, plant succession in various habitats, concept of climax.
Structure and function of ecosystem, energy flow and biogeochemical cycles (N,P,C,S),
primary production, principles of limiting factors, plant indicators, major
biomes of the world.
Environmental pollution-Air, Water, Soil, Green House effect, Ozone
layer depletion, Acid Rain, Concept of biodiversity with special reference
to India, Hot spots, stretagies for conservation of Flora and Fauna, Bio
monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment.
Plant civilization, centres of origin, gene diversity, utilization,
cultivation and improvement of plants of food (rice, wheat, bazra, pulses,
green gram, moth and beans) Oil seeds (mustard and ground nut), drugs (Rauvolfia,
Ephedra, papaver, Atropa, Cinchona), Fibre _ Cotton, jute and coir and
plants of industrial value _ Tobacco, sugarcane, tea and coffee, Ethnobotany
unexploited plants of potential economic value with special reference to
Rajasthan, plants as a source of re-newable energy.
Plant-water relation, membrance transport and translocation of water and
Enzymes - Classification, mechanism of action, role in metabolism,
enzyme, kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, active sites, coenzymes,
Activators and inhabitors, isozymes.
Photosynthesis - Pigments, photophosphorylation, path of carbon in
photosynthesis, photorespiration, photosynthesis in C4 plants, CAM.
Nitrogen metabolism - amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis.
Respiration - Glycolysis, TC A cycle, Glycogen breakdown, inter
conversion of hexoses and pentoses.
Seed dormancy and germination, hormonal regulation of growth and
development physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins,
gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, plant
rythms and biological clock, secondary metabolites, plant responses to
biotic and abiotic stresses.
Signal transduction : overview, receptors and G-proteins, specific
signaling mechanism in bacteria and proteins.
Ultra structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane
structure and function, cell organelles- structure and functions, Nuclear -
structure, nuclear pores, DNA Structure - A,B and z forms, replication,
demage and repair, transcription, splicing and nucleolus, cells cycle,
structure of chromatin and its organization, specialized types of
chromosomes, banding patterns, chromosomal oberrotion and polyploidy.
Genetics of eukaryote and prokaryote organelles, mapping of bacterio
phage genome, genetic tranformation, conjugation and transduction in
bacteria, genetics of mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility.
Techniques in cell biology-insitu hybridization FISH, GISH, Light,
confocal, electron microscopy, genetic code, transcription and translation,
operon model, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase.
Genetic Recombination and genetic mapping : Independent assortment and
crossing over, molecular mechanism of recombination, chromosome mapping,
Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in
evolution, principles of plant breeding important conventional methods of
self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops, mutation
Biotechnology : Basic concepts, principles and scope, plant cell and
tissue culture, concept of totipotency, organogenesis and adventive
embryogenesis, somatic hybridization - protoplast isolation, fusion and
culture; application of plant tissue culture clonal propagetion; artificial
seeds, production of hybrids and somaclone's , hybrids, gene transfer by
micro injection; production of secondary metabolites.
Recombination DNA Technology : Gene cloning, principles and techniques,
construction of genomic/c DNA libraries, DNA synthesis and sequencing,
polymerase chain reaction, DNA finger printing.
Genetic engineering of plants : Aims, strategies for development of
transgenics, Agrobacterium, intellectual property rights and possible
ecological risks and ethical concerns, microbial genetic manupulation,
genomics and proteomics, Bioactive compounds.
Electron microscopy, phase contrast, fixation and staining, HPLC,
Principles and practices of statistical methods in biological research,
samples and population, Basic statistics (averages, statistics of
dispersion, coefficient of variation, standard error and deviation);
confidence limits, probability, Distribution (Binomial, poison and Normal)
Tests of statistical significance, simple correlation and regression,
Analysis of variance.