Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave
equation (time independent). Interpretation of wave function, particle in
one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of
s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding
Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting
stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond
and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their
dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance
energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear
molecules: H+2, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN-, BeH2 and CO2. Comparision of
valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order, bond strength and
3. SOLID STATE
Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems
and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces,
lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg's law. X-ray
diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of
some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2
and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric
defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors. Elementary study of liquid
4. The gaseous state
Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions,
liquifictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell's distribution of
speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.
5. Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics
Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal
energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat
absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy
changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.
Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in
various process, entropyâ€“reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy
functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and
thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.
Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function;
electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic
quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.
6. Phase equilibria and solutions
Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase
diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially
miscible liquidsâ€“upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial
molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic
functions and their determination.
Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law
for various equilibrium and transport properties.
Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of
e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge
transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical
techniquesâ€“voltametry, polarography, amperometry, cyclic-voltametry, ion
selective electrodes and their use.
8. Chemical kinetics
Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral
rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions. Rate
equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect
of temperature and pressure on rate constant. Study of fast reactions by
stop-flow and relaxation methods. Collisions and transition state theories.
Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes;
photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum
10. Surface phenomena and catalysis
Adsorption from gages and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption
isothermsâ€“Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area,
characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry
Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across
the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesisâ€“PSI, PSII;
nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
12. Coordination chemistry
(a) Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in
transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its
modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and
electronic spactra of metal complexes.
(b) Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination
compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers;
chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories;
kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic
and kinetic stability of complexes.
(c) Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl
hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
(d) Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal
olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes;
coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions,
fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal
bonds and metal atom clusters.
13. General chemistry of â€˜fâ€™ block elements
Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and
spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.
14. Non-Aqueous Solvents
Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system
concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media,
fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.
1. Delocalised covalent bonding : Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes,
azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
2. (a) Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of
study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examplesâ€“use of
isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry;
energy diagrams of simple organic reactionsâ€“transition states and
intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control
(b) Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of
carbonium and carbanium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes
(c) Substitution reactions : SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1â€™, SN2â€™, SNiâ€™ and SRN1
mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic
reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic
compoundsâ€“pyrrole, thiophene, indole.
(d) Elimination reactions : E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2
reactionsâ€“Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn eliminationâ€“acetate
pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
(e) Addition reactions : Electrophilic addition to C=C and C=C; nucleophilic
addition to C=O, C=N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(f) Rearrangements : Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann,
Baeyerâ€“Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and
3. Pericyclic reactions : Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann
rulesâ€”clectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and
sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions : Aldol condensation (including
directed aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin,
Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter
reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole
synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann
and Reformatsky reactions.
5. Polymeric Systems
(a) Physical chemistry of polymers : Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic
properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers.
Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic
pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
(b) Preparation and properties of polymers : Organic polymersâ€“polyethylene,
polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and
natural rubber. Inorganic polymersâ€“phosphonitrilic halides, borazines,
silicones and silicates.
(c) Biopolymers : Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.
6. Synthetic uses of reagents : OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6,
Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.
7. Photochemistry : Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds,
excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type
8. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation :
(a) Rotational spectraâ€“diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and
(b) Vibrational spectraâ€“diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules,
specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
(c) Electronic spectra : Singlet and triplet states. Nâ€“>* and â€“>*
transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated
(d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : Isochronous and anisochronous protons;
chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of 1H NMR to simple organic
(e) Mass spectra : Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak,
fragmentation of simple organic molecules;â€“ cleavage, McLafferty
(f) Electron spin resonance : Inorganic complexes and free radicals.