: Zoology : Main Examination Exams in India
1. Non-chordata and
(a) Classfication and relationship
of varous phyla upto sub-classes; Acoelomata and Coelomata; Protostomes and
Deuteros tomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa,
Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion,
nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; General features and life history of
Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium, and Leishmania.
(c) Portfera: Skeleton, canal
system and reproduction.
(d) Coelenterata: Polymorphism,
defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation;
metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.
(e) Platyhelminthes; Parasitic
adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their
relation to man.
(f) Nemathelminthes: General
features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris; nemathelminths in
relation to man.
(g) Annelida: Coelom and
metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of
nereis (Neanthes), earthworm (Pheretima) and leach (Hirudinaria).
(h) Arthropoda: Larval forriis and
parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach
and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito,
housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal
regulation; social organization in insects (termites and honey bees).
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration,
locomotion, shell diversiy; general features and life history of Lamellidens,
Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata: Feeding,
respiration, locomotion larval forms; general features and life history of
(k) Protochordata: Origin of
chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdamania.
(l) Pisces: Scales, respiration,
(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods;
parental care, paedomorphosis.
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles;
skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocidiles.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds; flight
(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals;
denitition; general features of egg-laying mammals, pouched-mammals, aquatic
mammals and primates; endocrine glands and other hormone producing structures
(pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their
(q) Comparative functional anatomy
of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton,
locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system
including heart and aortic arches; urine-genital system, brain and sense organs
(eye and ear).
I. Ecoiogy :
cycles, green-houses effect, ozone layer and its impact; ecological succession,
biomes and ecotones.
(b) Population, characteristics,
population dynamics, population stabilization.
(c) Conservation of natural
resources- mineral mining, fisheries, aquaculture; forestry; grassland; wildlife
(Project Tiger); susainable production in agriculture-integrated pest
(d) Environmental bio degradation;
pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.
II. Ethology :
(a) Behaviour : Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign ..stimuli, learning,
instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; role
of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics,
social behaviour in insects and primates; courtship (Drosophila, 3-spine
stickleback and birds).
(c) Orientation, navigation,
homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian
(d) Methods of studying animal
III. Economic Zoology :
(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn
(b) Major infectious and
communicable diseases (small pox, plague, malaria, tuberculosis,-cholera and
AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.
(c) Cattle and livestock diseases,
their pathogens (helminths) atid vectors (ticks, mites,Tabanus, Stomoxys)
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla
perpiisiella), oil seed (Achaea Janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).
IV. Biostatistics :
Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution
and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way
& two-way F-test).
V. Instrumental methods :
(a) Spectrophotometry, flame photometry, Geiger-Muller counter, scintiliation
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
I. Cell Biology :
(a) Structure and function of eel! andits organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane,
mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Iysosomes),
cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus,
(b) Watson-Crick model of DNA,
replication of DNA, protein synthesis, transcription and transcription factors.
a) Gene structure and functions; genetic code.
(b) Sex chromosomes and sex
determination in Drosophilla, nematodes and man.
(c) Mendels laws of inheritance,
recombination, linkage, linkage-maps, multiple alleles, cistron concept;
genetics of blood groups.
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis :
radiation and chemical.
(e) Cloning technology, plasmids
and cosmids as vectors, transgenics, transposons, DNA sequence cloning and whole
animal cloning (Principles and methodology).
(f) Regulation and gene expression
in pro-and eu-karyotes.
(g) Signal transduction;
pedigree-analysis; congenital diseases in man.
(h) Human genome mapping; DNA
(a) Origin of life
(b) Natural selection, role of
mutation in evolution, mimicry, variation, isolation, speciation.
(c) Fossils and fossilization;
evolution of horse, elephant and man.
(d) Hardy-VVeinberg Law, causes of
change in gene frequency.-
(e) Continental drift and
distribution of animals.
(a) Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics.
(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, lipids, proteins, aminoacids,
nucleic acids; saturated and unsaturated fattyacids, cholesterol.
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle,
oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and
release, ATP, cyclic AMP-its structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (steroid
and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms
of action; immunoglobulin and immunity; vitamins and co-enzymes.
II Physiology (with special
refernece ot mammals)
(a) Composition and constihjtents
of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; coagulation, factors and mechanism
of coagulation; acid-base balance, thermo regulation.
(b) Oxygen and carbon dioxide
transport; haemoglobin : constituents and role in regulation.
(c) Nutritive requirements; role of
salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion and
(d) Excretory products; nephron and
regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation.
(e) Types of muscles, mechanism of
contraction of skeletal muscles.
(f) Neuron, nerve impulse-its
conduction and synaptic transmission; neuro transmitters.
(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction
(h) Mechanism of hormone action.
(i) Physiology of reproduction,
role of hormones and phermones.
III. Developmental Biology
(a) Differentiation from gamete to
neurula stage; dedifferentiation; metaplasia, induction, morphogenesis and
morphogen; fate maps of gastrulae in frog and chick; organogenesis of eye and
heart, placenation in mammals.
(b) Role of cytoplasm in and
genetic control of development; cell lineage; causation of metamorphosis in frog
and insects; paedogenesia and neoteny; growth, degrowth and cell death; ageing;
blastogenesis; regeneration; teratogenesis; neoplasia.
(c) Invasiveness of placenta; in
vitro fertilization; embryo transfer, cloning.