Weekly Mains Exam 2016 Answer Writing Challenge- Public
The main idea behind Weekly Answer Writing Challenges is to
make your exam preparation more result oriented. For this exam (UPSC Civil
Services), just ‘reading’ is not enough. The most advantageous part of this
writing exercise is to make your answer visible to everyone, someone may correct
you if they find a mistake in your answer plus it must be also supported by our
experts , you may see others answers also. It is free and definitely will
improve your writing ability and marks in your final examination. Here all
topics from syllabus will be covered.
Public Administration- Paper I "Syllabus Topic – Organisations: Boards and
If administrative authority within a department is vested in
a single individual, it is called a ‘bureau ‘ system. It is this system which is
usually followed in government departments.If administrative authority within a
department is vested in a plural body, it is called a ‘Board’ or ‘Commission’
Willoughby has laid down the following criteria for deciding
which system is to be used and when.
1) “ As a canon of correct administrative practice it may be
laid down that when the work to be done is essentially of an administrative
character, the bureau system should be followed” this is so because the
efficient operation of administrative activity requires unity of command,
quickness in decision and promptness in performance. All these is possible only
when authority is vested in a single individual .
2) “ where the duties to be performed involve the exercise of
discretion on an important scale in the formulation and adoption of policies(
such as, drafting of rules and regulation affecting private citizens), and in
the adjudication of claims, the board or commission system should be adopted”.
A board may be also advisory, when it is attached to the head
of a Department. E.g., Several advisory boards in the ministry of Industry and
Commerce.The Board type of organization is specially advantageous where policies
and techniques to be followed by the departments are not yet fully settled and
deliberations and discussions are necessary to discover the right course of
action to be followed. In this cases a plural headship is preferable.
Commission means where the intention is that an organization
which has to perform discretionary functions should be independent of
ministerial control, it is organized as a commission in such a way that the
executive has no control over the day to day functioning of the organization. In
such cases the members are appointed for fixed term and can be removed from
office only after following a set procedure. These commissions are useful for
the entrustment of functions of a discretionary nature, Where independence of
the organization from executive control is needed as in cases of staff
selection, framing of delegated legislation, regulation of certain sectors of
the economy, etc. Example of commission in the Government of India is the Union
Public Service commission.
Board and Commissions has it ‘s own obvious advantages but
also need cautions like plural headship leads to confusion of responsibility.
When a number of persons are responsible for a decision, none shoulders the
responsibility, if something goes wrong. Everybody’s responsibility is nobody’s
responsibility. This lead to negligence and inefficiency.
The Board system of headship created weak executive and hence is not
conductive to good and prompt work. It is time-consuming to take joint decision
on matters which need immediate action.
The system also leads to a lack of proper direction and
control. When decisions are taken late, their execution is delayed further and
even when steps have been taken to execute a decision, nobody puts his heart
into it and therefore, the rank and file often find themselves in dismay when
proper direction does not come forth from above in time.
Indian Administration- Paper II "Syllabus Topic –Public
Sector Undertakings: Impact of liberalization and privatization"
- Q2. The impact of second generation reforms on
management of CPSUs has been seminal. Explain.
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