Weekly Mains Exam 2016 Answer Writing Challenge- Public
The main idea behind Weekly Answer Writing Challenges is to
make your exam preparation more result oriented. For this exam (UPSC Civil
Services), just ‘reading’ is not enough. The most advantageous part of this
writing exercise is to make your answer visible to everyone, someone may correct
you if they find a mistake in your answer plus it must be also supported by our
experts , you may see others answers also. It is free and definitely will
improve your writing ability and marks in your final examination. Here all
topics from syllabus will be covered.
Public Administration- Paper I "Syllabus Topic – Comparative Public
Administration: Riggsian models and their critique"
Model Answer :
Fred W Riggs,renowned comparitivist scholar wanted to analyse
and compare different administrative systems. His models were based on 3
approaches namely-ideal type,structural-functinal and ecological. Owing to the
failure of his agraria-industraia model being abstract & too general which could
not satisfactorily explain transitional and mixed economies, a new model came up
- fused-prismattic-diffracted after abandoning the prior one which was also
based on structural-functional approach. While a society w/o specific functional
rules of administrative structures corresponded to a "fused society",a
"diffracted society" on the other hand was characterised by highly functional
specific structures.b/w these two polar societies lies the "prismatic society" .
It is important to mention that prismatic society does not correspond to
developing countries but helps in better understanding of developing countries.a
prismatic society is characterised by heterogeneity, formalism and overlapping.
1) HETEROGENEITY: refers to presence of different
kinds of systems, practices ,opinions, coexistence of urban and rural areas with
their fundamental traits,existence of modern(bureau) and traditional
structures(courts) and this heterogenity applies both to society and
2) FORMALISM: means discrepancy b/w what is prescribed
by rules and regulations and what is actually followed on ground. Official
actions not corresponding to their legal entitlements and privleges,intra
bureaucracy policy,ritualisation of procedures(red tapism).all this leads to
3) OVERLAPPING: Mainly on account of heterogeneity of
structures,values and functions. While new structures prevail old structures
continue to dominate. the bazar canteen model, where prices are not only
affected by market forces of demand and supply but also by social & political
relationship b/w buyers and sellers is another example.
The above mentioned characterstics can be substantiated by the "sala" model
too which outlines strict bureaucratic way of functioning leading to the
Indian Administration- Paper II "Syllabus Topic – Rural Development :
Institutions and agencies since independence"
- Q2. The role, functions and effectiveness of
voluntary agencies is constrained by several factors. Discuss with
appropriate examples from your surroundings.
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