Mains Examination Syllabus - Agriculture
Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their
management and conservation, Physical and Social environment as factors of crop
distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth impact
of changing environments, Environmental pollution and associated hazards to
crops, animals and humans.
Cropping patterns in different agro climatic zones of the
county, Impact of high yielding patterns, Concepts of multiple cropping,
Multistory, Relay and intercropping and their importance in relation to food
production, package of practices for production of important cereals, Pulses,
Oilseed, Fibre, Sugar and Commercial crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons
in different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and propagation of various types of
forestry plantations, such as extension / social forestry, agroforestry and
Weeds— their characteristics, dissemination and association
with various crops, their multiplications, cultural, biological and chemical
control of weeds.
Processes and factors of soil formation, Classification of
Indian soils including modern concepts, Mineral and Organic constituents of
soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity problem, Soils extent and
distribution in India and their reclamation, Essential Plant nutrient and other
beneficial elements in soils and plants — their occurrence, factors affecting
their distributions, functions and cycling in soil, Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic
nitrogen fixation, Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judical
Soil conservation planning on water shed basis, Erosion and
runoff management in hilly, foot hills and valley lands, processes factors
affecting them, Dry land agriculture and its problems, Technology for
stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area.
Water use efficiency in relation to crop production criteria
or scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducting run off losses of
irrigation water, Drainage of water logged soils.
Farm management, scope importance and characteristics, Farm
planning and budgeting, Economics of different types of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs,
Price fluctuations and their cost, Role of cooperatives in agricultural economy,
Types and system of farming and factors affecting them.
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, Methods
evaluation of extension programmes, Socialeconomic survey and status of big,
small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers, The farm
mechanization and its role in agricultural production and rural employment,
Training programmes for extension workers, Lab to land programmes.
Heredity and variation, Mendel’s Law of Inheritance,
Chromosomal theory of inheritance, Cytoplasmic inheritance, Sex linked, Sex
influenced and Sex limited characters. Spontaneous and induced mutations,
Origin and domestication of field crop, Morphology patterns
of variations in varieties and related species of important field crops, Causes
and utilization of variations in crop improvement.
Application of the principles of plant breeding to the
improvement of major field crops, Methods of breeding of self and
crosspollinated crops, Introductions, selection, hybridization, Heterosis and
its exploitation, Male sterility and self incompatibility, Utilization of
Mutation and Polyploidy in breeding.
Seed technology and importance, production, processing and
testing of seeds of Crop plants, Role of National and State seed organisations
in production, Processing and marketing of improved seeds.
Physiology and its significance in agriculture, Nature,
Physical properties and chemical constitution of protoplasm, Imbibition surface
tension, Diffusion and osmosis, Absorption and translocation of water,
Transpiration and water economy.
Enzymes and plant pigments, photosynthesis, modern concepts
and factors affecting the process, Aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Growth and development. Photo periodins and vernalization
Auxim, Hormones and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and
importance in agriculture.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits, Plans
and vegetable crops, the package of practices and the scientific basis for the
same, Handling and marketing problems of fruits and vegetables, Principal
methods of preservations, important fruits and vegetables products, Processing
techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetable in human nutrition. Land
scape and floriculture including raising of ornaments plants and design and
layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases pests of field, vegetable, orchard and plantation
crops of India and measures to control these, Causes and Classification of plant
diseases, Principles of plant disease control including exclusion, eradication,
immunization and protection, Biological control of pests and disease, Integrated
management of pests and disease, Pesticides and their formulations, Plant
protection equipment — their care and maintenance.
Strong pests of cereals and pulses, Hygiene of storage
godowns, Preservation and remedial measure.
Food production and consumption trends in India, National and
International food policies, Procurement, distribution, Processing and
production constraints, Relation of food production to national dietary pattern,
Major deficiencies of calorie and protein, Animal husbandry and Veterinary