(Syllabus) Mains Examination - Syllabus (Botany)

Mains Examination Syllabus  - Botany


Morphology : External morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures, Micro and Mega sporogenesis, Fertilization, Post fertilization changes leading to formation and development of embryo, Endosperms, Seeds and fruits, Dehiscence of fruits and seed dispersal.

Anatomy: Cell as a unit of life. Ultrastructure, cell formation. Tissue system and their classification with special reference to anatomical and physiological aspects, Secondary growth including anomalous types, Types of stele and their evolution from simple to complex forms, Comparison of vascular anatomy of rootstem transition region with that of stem or root.

Cryptogams : Variations in structure and reproduction in the
Algae main classes, their relationship and tends of evolution with particular reference to the following types :
Myxophyceae : Nestoc, Anabaena

Chlorophyceae : Volvox, Chlorella, Ulothrix, Cosmarium, Chaetophora, Chara hydrodictyon, Oedogonium

Bacillariophyceae : General account

Xanthophyceae : Vaucheria

Phaeophyceae : Extrocarous, Dictyota, Fucus

Rhodophyceae : Batrachospermun, Polysiphonia

Economic uses of Algae

(Fungi) : Classification, distinguishing features and reproduction in different types with particulars reference to the following :

Phycomycetes : Phytophthora, Cystopus

Ascomycetes : Saccharomyces, Penicillium Eryshiphae

Basidiomycetes : Ustilago, Puccinia, Psalliota

FungiImperfacti: Helminthosporium, Fusarium,

(Lichens):Classification and economic uses.

(Bryophytes): Structure, reproduction, sporophytic evolution, comparative study and interrelationships of bryophytes with special reference to the following types:
Marchantia, Anthoceros, Sphagnum.

(Pteriodophyhtes : A general account, Classification comparative morphology, anatomy and reproduction in the Pteridophytes including evolutionary tendencies with particular reference to the following types : Lycopodium, Isoeties, Marsilea.

(Gymnosperms) : General classification, comparative study on morphology, anatomy and reproduction. Representative type study on Cycas, Pinus, Gnetum, Knowledge of fossil formation and fossil gymnosperms.

(Angiosperms : Principles of classification, Merits and demerits of old systems of classification, Origin and evaluation of angiosperms, Critical studies on the following families :

Poaceae, Liliaceae Musaceae, Arecaceae, Orichidaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Erassicaceae, Tiliaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Apicaceae, Lamiaceae, Epocynaceae, Asteraceae, and Buphoribiaceae.


Physiology :Absorption and conduction of water and salts, Transpiration, Mechanism of opening and cbsing of stomata, Major and minor elements and their role in plant nutrition,Methods of determination of essentiality of elements, Micro and macro nutrients, Photosynthesis in mechanism and importance, Factors affecting the process, Nitrogen metabolism respiration, Fermentation metabolism and importance, Factors affecting them, Growth and development, Plant hormones, their function and uses physiology of reproduction photoperiodism and vernalization plant movements.

Ecology : Basic concepts of Ecology, Ecological factors, Concepts of plant community, Plant succession and invasion, Development of community and their association.

Phytogeographical regions of India & Flora of Assam.

Cytogenetics : Cytoplasm, Nucleus and other cell inclusions andstructure of chromosome, cell divisions and Plant Breeding Polyploidy, Mendel’s Laws, pre and post Mendelian concept of inheritance, Linkage and crossing over, Chromosome theory of heredity, mutation, Principles and methods of plant breeding.

Evoluation : General concept, evidences of evolution. Theories of evolution.

Economic Botany :Botanical names, process of cultivation and manufacture of products and uses of the following plants of human welfare:

Cereals : Rice, Wheat, Maize

Legumes : Soyabeen, Pea, Gram, Groundnut.

Oil : Mustard, Coconut, Castor

Fibre : Cotton, Jute

Beverage : Tea

Sugar: Sugarcane

Drugs : Cinchona, Atropa, Belladona, Rauolfia.

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