Union Public Service Commission
Central Police Force (Assistant
Commandant) Exam, 2009
Essay, Precis Writing & Comprehension Paper 2009
Q1. Write an essay on any one of the four topics below, in about 600 words
(a) Should uniformed services personnel be allowed to form associations?
(b) 'Not reason (or facts) but attitude resolves problems,
(c) Should a developing country spend money on space research?
(d) Should corporal punishment of children be banned in our schools and homes ?
Q2. Attempt a précis of the following passage in your own words, reducing
it to about a third of its present length and assigning a short appropriate
title. The précis must be written only in the special précis sheet provided.
"Remember that the aim of your discipline should be to produce a
self-governing being; not to produce a being to be governed by others. In feudal
times, when one of the chief evils the citizen had to fear was the anger of his
superiors, it was well that during childhood, parental vengeance should be a
chief means of government. But now that the good or evil which he experiences is
mainly that which in the order of things results from his own conduct, he should
from his first years begin to learn, experimentally, the good or evil
consequences which naturally follow this or that conduct. Aim, therefore, to
diminish the parental government, as fast as you can substitute for it in your
child's mind that self-government arising from a foresight of results, During
infancy, a considerable amount of absolutism is necessary.
A three-year-old urchin playing with an open razor, cannot be allowed to
learn by this discipline of consequences, for the consequences may be too
serious. But as intelligence increases, the number of peremptory interferences
may be, and should be, diminished with a view to gradually ending them as
maturity is approached. All transitions are dangerous; and the most dangerous is
the transition from the restraint of the family circle to the non-restraint of
the world. Hence the importance of pursuing the policy we advocate which, by
cultivating a boy's faculty of self-restraint, by continually increasing the
degree in which he is left to his self-restraint, and by so bringing him
step-by-step to a state of unaided self-restraint, obliterates the ordinary
sudden and hazardous change from externally-governed youth to
internally-governed maturity. Let the history of your domestic rule typify, in
little, the history of our political rule at the outset, autocratic control
where control is really needful; by and by, an incipient constitutionalism in
which the liberty of the subject gains some express recognition; successive
extensions of this liberty of the subject gradually ending in parental
Q3. Summarise in your own words the following passage in about a third of
its present length. It must be written only in the special précis sheet
"The teacher, like the artist, the philosopher, and the man of letters, can
only perform his work adequately if he feels himself to be an individual
directed by an inner creative impulse, not dominated and fettered by an outside
authority. It is very difficult in this modern world to find a place for the
individual. He can subsist at the top as a dictator in a totalitarian state or a
plutocratic magnate in a country of large industrial enterprises, but in the
realm of the mind it is becoming more and more difficult to preserve
independence of the great organized forces that control the livelihoods of men
and women. If the world is not to lose the benefit to be derived from its best
minds, it will have to find some method of allowing them scope and liberty in
spite of organization.
This involves a deliberate restraint on the part of those who have power, and
a conscious realization that there are men to whom free scope must be afforded.
Renaissance Popes could feel in this way towards Renaissance artists, but the
powerful men of our day seem to have more difficulty in feeling respect for
exceptional genius. The turbulence of our times is inimical to the flowering of
culture. The man in the street is full of fear, and therefore unwilling to
tolerate freedoms for which he sees no need. Perhaps we must wait for quieter
times before the claims of civilization can again override the claims of party
spirit. Meanwhile, it is important that some at least should continue to realize
the limitations of what can be done by organization. Every system should allow
loopholes and exceptions, for if it does not, it will in the end, crush all that
is best in man.'
Q4. Study the following passage, and then answer the questions given below
The advances of the scientific age have not been fortuitous. They are the
logical outcome of fearless thought, practised now unfortunately by only a few
and even by the few only in limited fields, Imagine, however, the possibilities
inherent in the application to the social and political questions of the day of
the same style of thought pursued with the same energy and cooperation that went
to the production of the atom bomb. Almost without exception, the major problems
facing governments and peoples today are technical ones — full production and
employment, social security, housing, race-relations, food supplies,
agricultural policy, health, war, distribution. The solution of these problems
is impossible except by the methods of science.
This complex civilization, rendered so by science, needs the scientific
method in every aspect of the citizen's life. Science is no longer neutral. When
the first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico, it exploded with it all further
possibility for science to stand aside. It can no longer be socially
irresponsible but the main body of citizens cannot wish to see it become
all-powerful. Through no wish of its own, science has been forced to assume a
The future of politics is scientific. Only philosophers can now safely guide
the destinies of men. This is not a new view. Even Plato, in spite of his
insistence on the importance of the expedient, confessed, "I was forced to the
condition that only the true philosophy can enable us to discern in all cases
what is good for communities and individuals”; and that accordingly the human
race will see better days if either those who rightly and genuinely follow
philosophy acquire political power, or else the class who have political control
become real philosophers.
Science is the learning of the democracies. It has always been so in Greece
as in our times, and recent history has shown most clearly that other forms of
government can only exist provided that the scientific spirit is eliminated even
when its technology is retained. Only in a community where the citizens have
freedom of action can science flourish and only when science flourishes can the
citizens be free. Democracy and science go hand in hand. It is not a coincidence
that the principles of citizenship were taught in Greece when science flourished
and have come into their own again in modern times.
But even in a democracy there will always be forces in opposition to the
spread of knowledge and liberty of thoughts among the citizens. The danger of
the rising oligarchy is ever present and science is not the learning of the
oligarchies – even scientific ones. Rhetoric and tradition are the remnants of
oligarchies. The possibility of a scientific oligarchy is now the most imminent
of the changes we may have to face.
Science has given to the citizen through technology the power of
self-destruction, but has placed alongside it the basic philosophy that has
vitalised science itself. On what use he makes of these twin gifts depends the
world's future. If, as he has done in the past, he grasps avidly the former and
neglects the latter, then Norman Collins is right, "Modern man is obsolete, a
self-made anachronism becoming more incongruous by the minute. He has exalted
change in everything but himself."
After three centuries, science is now supreme and as a result the world
stands at the cross-roads. But if we recognise the need for change, break the
chains of habit and indulge in the single-minded pursuit of truth, the new
scientific age shall be bright with promise for citizenship and for the citizen
on every plane of communal life.
Questions : (Answer in your own words)
(i) How does scientific knowledge affect the political system?
(ii) How has science rendered modern civilization complex ?
(i) In what way has science been given a commanding position ?
(iv) When will democracy be changed into oligarchy ?
(v) How do politics and philosophy complement each other?
(vi) What can man do to strike a balance between inventions and social
(vii) Can a philosopher guide the destiny of man?
(viii) Explain the portions underlined in the passage, keeping in view the
context in which they appear.