Mini Courses of GS IV: Emotional Intelligence

Mini Courses of Ethics, Integrity, Attitude, Aptitude and case studies for IAS Mains Examination


The phrase emotional intelligence, or its casual shorthand EQ, has become ubiquitous. Emotional intelligence ‘Eli refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.

Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their article “Emotional Intelligence”, they defined emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”. David Caruso: “It is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite is not the triumph of heart over head- it is the unique intersection of both.”

Freedman et al. “Emotional Intelligence is a way ; of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think, feel, and act. It shapes our interactions with others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn; it allows us to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible for as much as 80% of the “success” in our lives.”

Mayer & Salovey: “People high in emotional intelligence are expected to progress more quickly through the abilities designated and to master more of them.”

John D. Mayer: “An emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously.”


Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability to reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.

  • Perceiving Emotions:
  • Using Emotions:
  • Understanding Emotions:
  • Managing Emotions:


Can managers and other employees develop emotional intelligence? While some researchers believe that emotional intelligence is an inborn characteristic, others believe that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened. I believe that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, but only when an employee understands how emotional intelligence is observable and useful in the workplace. Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer, leading emotional intelligence researchers, recognize four aspects of emotional intelligence: “the perception of emotion, the ability to reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.”


Managers who are able to relate with emotional intelligence may be due to nature or practice, can bring an extra dimension of understanding and relationship building to their work assignments. Several components of the interaction of an individual who has highly developed emotional intelligence have been described above. The following are ideas about how to strengthen your emotional intelligence in day-to-day practice.

Leadership Traits:

  • Charisma
  • Decisiveness
  • Persuasiveness
  • Single-niiialedness
  • Vision
  • Drive

Intellectual Traits:

  • Honesty
  • Confidence
  • Decisiveness
  • Persuasiveness
  • Creativity

Physical Traits :

  • Self-discipline
  • Strong work ethic
  • Ability to learn from mistakes
  • Responsibility
  • Patience

Spiritual Traits :

  • -on
  • Principles
  • Pinion
  • Ops-.
  • Commitment

This is Part of Online Coaching & Study Kit of IAS Mains General Studies - IV

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