Public Administration Mains 2017 : Model Question and Answer - 6
Public Administration Mains 2017 : Model Question and Answer
(Public Administration Paper I / Chapter: Administrative Behaviour)
Question : What is fact and value debate in Simon's Decision Making ? (10 Marks/200 words)
Model Answer :
A fact is a statement of reality indicating the existing deed , act or state of things. A value is an expression of preference. Most decision premises have both factual and value elements. To bring out the distinction between facts and values the means end distinction is used. Mixed issues of fact and value impinge on administration complicating the decision process.
The relevance of this impingement on administration is to be seen in purposive character of organisation, which helps groups to accomplish goals which are beyond their individual reach. In so far as the decisions lead to the selection of final goals, they may be treated as ‘value judgements’ i.e the value component predominates and if decisions led to implementation of goals they may be treated as factual judgements i.e the factual component predominates .
According to Simon, rationality is limited because of incompleteness of
knowledge, lack of perfect anticipation and other psychological reasons, thus
decisions cannot be solely fact based. Thus he stresses on bounded rationality
i.e choosing the alternatives on satisficing rather than optimising criteria.
(Linkages : Fact and Value Debate, Herbert Simon, Decision Making, Bounded Rationality, Satisficing )