(Online Course) Public Administration for IAS Mains Exams
Topic: Good Governance: Concept and Application
The term “governance’ has wider meaning and implications. It
means the process as well as result of making authoritative decisions for the
benefit of the society. But its conceptual difficulties begin when it is fount
that the term is being touted in recent years by multilateral and bilateral and
given agencies as a part of pre-conditions for economic aid or as a process of
reforms qualifying for economic aid.
The concept of ‘good governance’ device its relevance in the
context of misgovernments. I many countries the democratic form of government
has proved to be ineffective for checking swinging of public funds for private
gains by the elected leaders as well as the bureaucrats. Misuse of power, fraud,
chicanery and embezzlement of funds, are systematically perpetrated by the
leaders of government and their minions. Misgovernance is found all around
especially in the developing countries, in rampant degree. The concept of good
governance becomes attractive as a remedy against this state of affairs.
World Bank Conceptualization
The World Bank has identified a number of aspects of good governance which
has assumed significance for the developed Countries. These factors deal with
political and administrative aspects, which are as follows:
1. Political accountability, including the acceptability of political system
by the people and regular elections.
2. Freedom of association and participation by various groups in the process of
3. Bureaucratic accountability
4. Freedom of information and expression
Challenges of Good Governance in India
1. Legal and judicial reforms
2. Anti-corruption laws
3. Participation of the Civil Society in Public Decision making
4. Corporate regulatory frameworks
5. Public financial Management.
Meaning of People’s Participation
The term ‘participation’ varies in meaning, and content from
context to context. According to a UNESCO document “participation is collective
sustained activity for the purpose of achieving some common objective ,
especially a more equitable distribution of the benefits of development. Broadly
speaking, the term ‘people’s participation refers to the role of members of
general public in influencing the activities of government. It may occur from
the village to the country level. It may manifest itself in different front. The
participation may be direct, as in the community projects or it may be indirect,
through elected representatives. Hence, participation in administration refers
to all those activities which indicate the people’s involvement in the process
of administration that is, participation in polity formulation and programme
planning, implementation and evaluation of polices and programmes meant for
development of particular target groups.
Problems of Peoples’ Participation in India
In India people are indifferent and apathetic towards
administration. Extensive empirical studies on the nature and degree of citizens
participation in India have revealed that colonial legacy, social diversity,
poverty and illiteracy and the peculiarity of the political process greatly
restrict people’s participation in the public Administration in India. The
system of democratic decentralization introduced in India did not really develop
power on the masses.
The dominance of poverty power on the masses. The dominance
of powerful socio-economic and political groups has alienated the common man
from the national main stream. Poverty Unemployment and inequality are still
wide spread. Most of the citizens feel helpless before the mighty power of the
administration and have, learnt to reconcile to the corrupt political system.
Measure to Promote People’s Participation in Administration
To promote people’s participation in Administration various
measures need to be initiated. These my include constant contact of legislators
with their constituents, change in the attitude of bureaucrats, competent
administrative leadership, constructive role of Political parties and
restricting of administration so as to make it more democratic and responsive.
Good Governance Initiative in India
1. Right to Information Act, 2005
2. Citizen Charter
3. National e-Governance Plan
4. Unique Identification Number
5. Reforms under Second ARC
6. PM's award for Excellence in Public Administration.