(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013
Chapter: Gist of Press Information
Topic: Population Stabilisation - The
Q. Population at a glance?
India’s population as per 2011 census was 1.21 billion,
second only to China in the world. India accounts for 2.4% of the world’s
surface area yet it supports more than 17.5% of the world’s population.
Population Stabilization has always been one of the
priority agenda and Family Planning as one of the key intervention for the
In 1952, India was the first country in the world to
launch a national programme, emphasizing family planning to the extent
necessary for reducing birth rates “to stabilize the population at a level
consistent with the requirement of national economy”. The program has come a
long way and currently Family Planning Program is being repositioned to not
only achieve population stabilization but also to reduce maternal mortality
and infant and child mortality.
The entire programme was given a mission approach and the
ambitious project was named the National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM) in
This National Drinking Water Mission was renamed as Rajiv
Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission which principally works on the
premise of community based demand driven approach instead of the traditional
forced supply driven approach.
Actually, a paradigm shift in the scheme was brought
after a nationwide survey conducted in 1996-97 which revealed that even
poorest of the poor were” willing to participate” in the implementation of
the programmes, and also contribute towards operation and maintenance of the
scheme for drinking water.
Q. What are the highlights of National Population Policy,
The National Population Policy, 2000 (NPP 2000) provides a
policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies to meet:
The reproductive and child health needs of the people of
India, and to achieve net replacement levels of fertility (i.e. TFR 2.1) by
Achieve 80 percent institutional deliveries and 100
percent deliveries by trained persons. Reduce infant mortality rate to below
30 per 1000 live births, maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000
live births, 100% registration of all births, deaths and pregnancies and
achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable
diseases. Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and
preferably after 20 years of age.
Achieve universal access to information/counseling, and
services for fertility regulation and contraception with a wide basket of
Bring about convergence in implementation of related
social sector programs so that family welfare becomes a people centred
Q. What is the current scenario in respect of NPP 2000?
Total Fertility Rate is still 2.6 at National level and
scenario is diverse across states.
Nine states are well above the replacement level
fertility (TFR >3);
Twelve states/UTs are at threshold of achieving the
replacement level of fertility (TFR – 2.1-3)
While 11 state and 3 UTs have already achieved the
replacement level of fertility i.e. <2.1.
The States also differ widely in terms of health
indicators, nutritional status and socio- economic situation. Practice of
Family planning is also low in the states where the other indicators are
Q. What the renewed approaches are being taken by government
to cope with NPP 2000?
Currently the Government follows High-focus district
approach (264 such districts have been selected) and support these districts
(and states) for better implementation of Family Planning programmes (and
other programmes as well).
The Government is committed to reduce the Maternal
Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 100/100,000 live births, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
to 30/1000 live births and to achieve the replacement level of fertility
(Total Fertility Rate - 2.1) by 2012.
Q. Which states are with TFR greater than 3.0?
States with TFR >3.0 (U.P. Bihar, M.P., Rajasthan, Jharkhand,
Chhattisgarh, and Meghalaya): These States will account for almost 50% of the
increase in India’s Population in coming years.
Q. Which states are States with TFR between 2.1 to <3?
States with TFR between 2.1 to <3 are Uttarakhand, Gujarat,
Haryana, J&K, Orissa.