(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013 - PIB "Topic : Population Stabilisation - The Way Ahead"

(IGP) Special Current Affairs Material for IAS (Pre) 2013

Chapter: Gist of Press Information Bureau Articles

Topic: Population Stabilisation - The Way Ahead

Q.  Population at a glance?

  • India’s population as per 2011 census was 1.21 billion, second only to China in the world. India accounts for 2.4% of the world’s surface area yet it supports more than 17.5% of the world’s population.

  • Population Stabilization has always been one of the priority agenda and Family Planning as one of the key intervention for the Government.

  • In 1952, India was the first country in the world to launch a national programme, emphasizing family planning to the extent necessary for reducing birth rates “to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the requirement of national economy”. The program has come a long way and currently Family Planning Program is being repositioned to not only achieve population stabilization but also to reduce maternal mortality and infant and child mortality.

  • The entire programme was given a mission approach and the ambitious project was named the National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM) in 1986.

  • This National Drinking Water Mission was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission which principally works on the premise of community based demand driven approach instead of the traditional forced supply driven approach.

  • Actually, a paradigm shift in the scheme was brought after a nationwide survey conducted in 1996-97 which revealed that even poorest of the poor were” willing to participate” in the implementation of the programmes, and also contribute towards operation and maintenance of the scheme for drinking water.

Q. What are the highlights of National Population Policy, 2000?

The National Population Policy, 2000 (NPP 2000) provides a policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies to meet:

  • The reproductive and child health needs of the people of India, and to achieve net replacement levels of fertility (i.e. TFR 2.1) by 2010.

  • Achieve 80 percent institutional deliveries and 100 percent deliveries by trained persons. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, maternal mortality ratio to below 100 per 100,000 live births, 100% registration of all births, deaths and pregnancies and achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases. Promote delayed marriage for girls, not earlier than age 18 and preferably after 20 years of age.

  • Achieve universal access to information/counseling, and services for fertility regulation and contraception with a wide basket of choices.

  • Bring about convergence in implementation of related social sector programs so that family welfare becomes a people centred programme.

Q. What is the current scenario in respect of NPP 2000?

  • Total Fertility Rate is still 2.6 at National level and scenario is diverse across states.

  • Nine states are well above the replacement level fertility (TFR >3);

  • Twelve states/UTs are at threshold of achieving the replacement level of fertility (TFR – 2.1-3)

  • While 11 state and 3 UTs have already achieved the replacement level of fertility i.e. <2.1.

  • The States also differ widely in terms of health indicators, nutritional status and socio- economic situation. Practice of Family planning is also low in the states where the other indicators are poor.

Q. What the renewed approaches are being taken by government to cope with NPP 2000?

  • Currently the Government follows High-focus district approach (264 such districts have been selected) and support these districts (and states) for better implementation of Family Planning programmes (and other programmes as well).

  • The Government is committed to reduce the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) to 100/100,000 live births, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 30/1000 live births and to achieve the replacement level of fertility (Total Fertility Rate - 2.1) by 2012.

Q. Which states are with TFR greater than 3.0?

States with TFR >3.0 (U.P. Bihar, M.P., Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Meghalaya): These States will account for almost 50% of the increase in India’s Population in coming years.

Q. Which states are States with TFR between 2.1 to <3?

States with TFR between 2.1 to <3 are Uttarakhand, Gujarat, Haryana, J&K, Orissa.

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