KALA- AZAR: Important Topics for UPSC Exams
What is Kala-azar?
Kala-azar also called black fever or dumdum fever is a
fatal parasitic disease of viscera (the internal organs particularly the
bones, liver, spleen etc.) caused by the infection due to the parasitic
agent called Leishmania Donovani.
How is it transmitted?
- It is transmitted by Sand Fly bites. Hence it is common in families
living in close proximity to livestock or in humid condition. The South bank
of Ganga River is the global epicentre for Kala-Azar.
What are its Symptoms?
- High fever, substantial weight loss, enlargement of liver, spleen, loss
of appetite, suppression of bone marrow etc.
- WHO has categorised it as NTD (Neglected Tropical Disease) which affects
poorest populations in tropical and subtropical regions especially in
developing countries of the world.
Initiatives were taken by Government of India
WHO has set the target for GOI to eliminate it by 2017. A centrally sponsored
kala-azar control programme had been launched for endemic states in the year
1990-91. The government is working together with BMGF, WHO, NCDC, RMRI to
eliminate Kala-azar from India. On a monthly basis, the progress is being
monitored by PMO and Ministry of health any family welfare.
- National roadmap for Kala-azar has been circulated in all states.
- Treatment of the patient with single day single dose AmBisome injection
has improved treatment compliance.
- Regular supply of diagnostic kit.
- Rs. 300 being given to ASHA worker or health volunteer to bring cases
suspected with Kala-azar and ensures their full treatment.