Current Affairs for IAS Exams -01 February 2023

Current Affairs for IAS Exams - 01 February 2023


Justice G. Rohini Commission

  • The Justice G. Rohini-led commission for the sub-categorisation of other backward classes (OBCs) has now been given yet another extension in its tenure by the President.


  • This is the 14th extension in tenure that the commission has been given. 
  • The commission, formed in October 2017, was initially given 12 weeks to finish the task of sub-categorising the nearly 3,000 castes within the OBC umbrella and recommend division of the 27% OBC quota among them equitably. 
  • Initially, the government cited more time required by the panel to gather information and data and then it cited the pandemic.

Terms of References:
1.    to examine the extent of inequitable distribution of benefits of reservation among the castes or communities included in the broad category of Other Backward Classes, with reference to such classes included in the Central List;
2.    to work out the mechanism, criteria, norms and parameters in a scientific approach for sub-categorisation within such Other Backward Classes;
3.    to take up the exercise of identifying the respective castes or communities or sub-castes or synonyms in the Central List of Other Backward Classes and classifying them into their respective sub-categories. 
What does Article 340 says?

  • The Article reads, “The President may, by order, appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition...”

Earlier commissions:

  • First Backward Class Commission report, 1955 proposed sub-categorization of OBCs into backward and extremely backward communities.
  • Mandal Commission report, 1979 proposed sub-categorization in intermediate and depressed backward classes.
  • In 2015, National Commission for Backward Classes proposed that OBCs division into; Extremely Backward Classes (EBC-Group A), More Backward Classes (MBC-Group B), and Backward Classes (BC-Group C).


Anubhava  Mantapa of Lord Basaveshwara

  • Anubhava Mantapa was established by Lord Basaveshwara to facilitate gathering for philosophy and experience.


  • Anubhava Mantapa was one of the earliest Parliament in history of mankind.
  • Prabhudeva, a great Yogi of extraordinary achievement, was the President and Lord Basava acted as the Prime Minister.
  • Problems tackled were of various natures covering social, religious, spiritual, yogic psychological, economic, and literary spheres.
  • Only difference between the present-day parliament and Anubhava Mantapa is that members were not elected by people, but were picked up or nominated by higher authorities of Mantapa.

Lord Basaveshwara (1105-1167)

  • He was a 12th century poet and born in Karnataka.
  • Known for Socio-Religious Reforms, Anubhava Mantapa, Vachana Literature and Lingayat Movement in south India.
  • Basava Purana, written by Palkuriki Somanatha in 13th-century, holds full account to Basavanna’s life and ideas.
  • Who rejected gender and caste discrimination, superstitions and rituals. A strong promoter of ahimsa (non-violence), he condemned human and animal sacrifices.
  • Basava Jayanthi is an annual event celebrated in his honour of birth.

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Researchers find new way to improve storage time of quantum information

  • An international team of scientists has made a breakthrough in retaining the quantum coherence of quantum dot spin qubits.

Key highlights:

  • These technologies will alter a wide range of enterprises and research initiatives, from information security to the search for novel materials and chemicals, to measurements of fundamental physical processes requiring exact temporal synchronisation among the sensors.
  • Spin-photon interfaces are elementary building blocks for quantum networks that allow converting stationary quantum information (such as the quantum state of an ion or a solid-state spin qubit) into light, namely photons, that can be distributed over large distances.

About Quantum coherence:

  • It deals with the idea that all objects have wave-like properties.
  • It states that, if an object’s wave-like nature is split in two, then the two waves may coherently interfere with each other in such a way as to form a single state that is a superposition of the two states.
  • This concept of superposition is famously represented by Schrödinger’s cat, which is both dead and alive at the same time when in its coherent state inside a closed box.
  • It lies at the heart of quantum computing, in which a qubit is in a superposition of the “0” and “1” states.

What is Quantum entanglement?

  • It means that aspects of one particle of an entangled pair depend on aspects of the other particle, no matter how far apart they are or what lies between them. 
  • Like coherence, quantum entanglement also plays an essential role in quantum technologies.


World Leprosy Day

  • The World Leprosy Day is observed on the last Sunday of January every year.


  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced “Act Now. End Leprosy.” as its theme for this year’s World Leprosy Day. 
  • The theme stresses three main points: one, that elimination of leprosy is possible; two: that immediate action is required, that includes resources and commitment; and third that leprosy is preventable and treatable, hence people still suffering from it is a needless thing.

About Leprosy:

  • Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that may lead to severe disfiguring skin sores and nerve damage in the arms, legs, and skin areas around your body.
  • Also known as Hansen’s disease, it is a chronic bacterial infection that is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacteria. It affects the skin and nervous system. 
  • In extreme cases, it might also lead to blindness, paralysis, disfigurement of the nose, and chronic ulcers on the bottom of the feet.


Economic Survey

  • Union Finance Minister recently tabled the Economic Survey for 2022-23 in the Lok Sabha.

Key highlights:

  • Survey sees economy growing a tad: GDP growth seen in a 6.1-6.8% range with a 6.5% base case but set to regain the status of fastest growing major economy as the world slows sharply.
  • Multiple drivers supporting 6.5% growth and lifting medium-term potential to 7-8%
  • Rebound in private consumption, buoyant services

1.    Increase in capacity utilisation
2.    Healthy corporate, bank balance sheets
3.    Slowing inflation, recovery in credit cycle
4.    Recovery in private sector investment
5.    Limited risk from China’s Covid surge; normalising supply chains
6.    Cessation of monetary tightening leading to return of capital flows


Some immediate risks

1.    Recession in advanced economies
2.    Ongoing monetary tightening in developed markets
3.    Still higher -than-normal commodity prices and slowing exports
4.    Currency may weaken if current account deficit widens
5.    Weakness in markets, uncertain monsoon

Policy Prescription

1.    Continue with fiscal prudence
2.    Check on current account deficit
3.    Continue vigil on inflation
4.    Aggressive monetisation and privatisation
5.    A critical minerals policy Incentivise states for reforms
6.    Dismantle LIC – Licensing, Inspection & Compliance
7.    Education and skilling to match industry requirements


Turnersuchus hingleyae

  • Palaeontologists have uncovered a new Thalattosuchian—an ancient “cousin” of modern-day crocodile—which could be the oldest of its kind ever discovered.
  • The fossils uncovered on the Jurassic Coast in the United Kingdom include part of the head, backbone, and limbs of Turnersuchus hingleyae.

Key findings:

  • The newly-discovered fossils of Turnersuchus hingleyae represent the only complete Thalattosuchian of its age and date back to the early Jurassic, Pliensbachian period, which was about 185 million years ago. 
  • In the study, the researchers stated that the discovery of this new fossil helps fill a gap in the fossil record and suggests that Thalattosuchians and other crocodile-like animals could have originated around 15 million years farther than Turnersuchus.
  • It is likely that they would have looked similar to the currently living gharial crocodiles. 
  • Gharial crocodiles are usually found in the major river systems of Northern India. 
  • But according to the researchers, though thalattosuchians’ skulls looked similar to gharial crocodiles, they were constructed differently.

Pliensbachian period:

  • It occurred between 190.8 million and 182.7 million years ago during the Early Jurassic Period.
  • The stage’s name is derived from the village of Pliensbach, Germany.


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