India has joined a major global initiative to combat
terrorism and extremism online and secure the internet.
The initiative 'Christchurch call to action' has been named
after the New Zealand city where 51 people were killed in an attack on mosques.
It was launched in Paris yesterday by India, France, New
Zealand, Canada and several other countries.
The declaration on Christchurch call to action said a free, open
and secure internet is a powerful tool by which to promote connectivity, enhance
social inclusiveness and foster economic growth.
It said the internet is, however, not immune from abuse by
terrorist and violent extremist actors, and there is a need for collective
efforts globally to secure the internet from terror groups. This was tragically
highlighted by the terrorist attacks in Christchurch which were designed to go
viral, it said.
The declaration said the Christchurch attack highlighted the
urgent need for action and enhanced cooperation among the wide range of actors
with influence over this issue, including governments, civil society, and online
service providers, such as social media companies, to eliminate terrorist and
violent extremist content online.
The initiative outlines collective, voluntary commitments from
governments and online service providers intended to address the issue of
terrorist and violent extremist content online and to prevent the abuse of the
Reserve Bank of India has released a vision document for
ensuring a safe, secure, convenient, quick and affordable e-payment system.
According to RBI release on Wednesday the 'Payment and
Settlement Systems in India: Vision 2019 - 2021', with its core theme of
'Empowering Exceptional E-payment Experience', envisages to achieve "a highly
digital and cash-lite society" through the goal posts of competition,
cost-effectiveness, convenience and confidence (4Cs).
The RBI said the payment systems landscape will continue to
change with further innovation and entry of more players which is expected to
ensure the optimal cost to the customers and freer access to multiple payment
It said that the bank will implement the approach outlined in
this Vision during the period 2019 - 2021. It further said that the approach of
the RBI will continue to be of minimal intervention in the pricing of charges to
customers for digital payments, all efforts will be made towards facilitating
the operation of payment systems which are efficient and price-attractive.
The RBI said that the document talks about creating customer
awareness, setting up a 24X7 helpline and self-regulatory organisation for
system operators and service providers, among others. It added that the
'no-compromise' approach towards safety and security of payment systems remains
a hallmark of the vision.
The Moon is shrinking as its interior cools ,getting over 50
metres skinnier through the last several hundred million years and causing
quakes on the lunar surface, a study has found. Just as a grape wrinkles as
it shrinks down to a raisin, the Moon gets wrinkles as it shrinks,
Unlike the flexible skin on a grape, the Moon’s surface crust is
brittle, so it breaks as the Moon shrinks, forming “thrust faults” where one
section of crust is pushed up over a neighbouring part.
These fault scarps resemble small stair-step shaped cliffs when
seen from the lunar surface, typically tens of metres high and extending for
The study, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, analysed
data from four seismometers placed on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts using an
algorithm, or mathematical programme, developed to pinpoint quake locations
detected by a sparse seismic network.
Weathering from solar and space radiation gradually darkens
material on the lunar surface, so brighter areas indicate regions that are
freshly exposed to space, as expected if a recent moonquake sent material
sliding down a cliff.