A survey of nearly 10,000 migrants in rural Bihar by Indian
Institute of Technology Hyderabad has found that rural migrants who move to
urban areas tend to be from relatively well-off social and economic
hierarchies. On the other, hand, poorer migrants tended to move to other
The study found that 78% of all migrants from rural Bihar went
to an urban destination. However, those belonging to the top of the social and
economic hierarchy in villages are disproportionately represented in the
Migrant who are more educated were more likely to move to urban
areas – and they moved without having worked in the local rural economy.On the
other hand, poorer migrants, who generally do manual labour, tended to move to
other rural areas.
Households with migrants reported a higher annual income than
households without migrants. More than 90 per cent of all migrants sent
remittances, and remittances comprised 55 per cent of total income of households
with migrants. Poorer households were more dependent on remittances than
The data also showed that migration tended to increase with
increasing incomes, showing that poverty is a constraining factor in migration.
Migration rates were the lowest in the bottom-most income quintile and kept
increasing until the fourth quintile – it falls again in the top income
quintile. This has been the same pattern for all three surveys - 1999, 2011 and
Concerned over exit of a few states, dropping out of
insurance companies and growing dissent among farmers on the government’s
flagship crop insurance scheme, the centre has set up a seven-member group
of ministers (GoM) headed by defence minister Rajnath Singh to review the
scheme and recommend changes to make it more farmer friendly.
There have been demands for making crop insurance voluntary to
all farmers, removal of high premium crops and giving flexibility to states to
provide customised add-on products.
States like Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have exited
from the central scheme and have launched their own crop insurance scheme.
Similarly, ICICI Lombard,Tata AIG, Cholamandalam MS, and Shriram
General Insurance have opted out of this scheme citing losses in the crop
insurance business due to high loss ratio, which refers to claims paid plus
adjustment expenses against premium earned.
The scheme provides comprehensive crop insurance from pre-sowing
to post-harvest period against non-preventable natural risks at extremely low
premium rates a farmer has to pay - 2% for kharif crops, 1.5% for rabi crops and
5% for horticulture and commercial crops. The remaining amount of premium is
equally shared by central and the respective state governments.
Farmers too are not happy with this scheme. They complain that
state governments use their discretionary powers to decide how much land will be
insured and the sum insured to reduce their burden of subsidy premiums.
The UN's Libya envoy has said that military and maritime
agreements signed between Turkey and the Tripoli government represent an
escalation of the conflict in the North African country.
GhassanSalame's remarks came as Egypt called for an urgent
meeting tomorrow of the Cairo-based Arab League to discuss developments in Libya
and the possibility of an escalation there.
Libya has been mired in conflict since a NATO-backed uprising
toppled and killed dictatorMoamerKadhafi in 2011, with rival administrations in
the east and the west vying for power.
In April, military strongman KhalifaHaftar, who is based in the
east, launched an assault to seize the capital Tripoli from the UN-recognised
Government of National Accord.
In November Ankara signed a security and military cooperation
deal with the GNA and also inked a maritime jurisdiction agreement with the
In addition, Turkey is preparing to hold a vote in parliament on
deploying troops in support of the GNA in its battle against Haftar, who is
backed by Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and Russia.
A Chinese court on Monday sentenced the scientist who
claimed to be behind the world’s first gene-edited babies to three years in
prison for illegal medical practice, state media reported.
He, who was educated at Stanford University, was sentenced by a
court in Shenzhen for “illegally carrying out the human embryo gene-editing
intended for reproduction”, Xinhua said. Two of his fellow researchers were also
Zhang Renli was handed a two-year jail term and fined one
million yuan while Qin Jinzhou was given 18 months, suspended for two years, and
fined 500,000 yuan.
The trio had not obtained qualifications to work as doctors and
had knowingly violated China’s regulations and ethical principles, according to
the court verdict, Xinhua said.
They had acted “in the pursuit of personal fame and gain” and
seriously “disrupted medical order”, it said. The researchers had forged ethical
review materials and recruited couples where the husband was HIV positive for
their gene-editing experiments.
The trial was held behind closed doors as the case related to
“personal privacy”, Xinhua said. He’s gene-editing experiments resulted in two
pregnancies — the twin girls and third baby which had not previously been
confirmed, it said.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati Researchers
have developed materials that can produce energy from water, on a small
In the centralized energy generation model, one large plant
produces energy for an entire region, in contrast, the decentralized energy
model introduces a large number of small generation devices that can be employed
to generate in every household.
The excess energy produced in households can be transported
nearby areas where there is an excessive need for energy. The researchers of IIT
Guwahati employed the nanoscale phenomenon called “Electrokinetic streaming
potential” to harvest energy from flowing water on the small length scale like
water flowing through household water taps.
Similarly, the “Contrasting Interfacial Activities” different
types of semiconducting materials were employed to generate power from stagnant
In order to extract power from stagnant water, devices were
fabricated by employing doped graphene flakes. The complementary charge transfer
activities of doped graphene flakes based devices generate power just upon
dipping in any kind of water source, like lake, river or seawater.