Download UPSC : Textbook for Environmental Studies by UGC
Unit 1 : Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
- Definition, scope and importance
- Need for public awareness.
Unit 2 : Natural Resources :
Renewable and non-renewable resources :
Natural resources and associated problems.
a) Forest resources : Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forest and tribal people.
b) Water resources : Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water,floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefits and problems.
c) Mineral resources : Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies.
d) Food resources : World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, case studies.
e) Energy resources : Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies.
f) Land resources : Land as a resource, land degradation, man inducedlandslides, soil erosion and desertification.
- Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
- Equitable use of resoureces for sustainable lifestyles.
Unit 3 : Ecosystems
• Concept of an ecosystem.
• Structure and function of an ecosystem.
• Producers, consumers and decomposers.
• Energy flow in the ecosystem.
• Ecological succession.
• Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids.
• Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem :-
a. Forest ecosystem
b. Grassland ecosystem
c. Desert ecosystem
d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
Unit 4 : Biodiversity and its conservation
• Introduction – Definition : genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.
• Biogeographical classification of India
• Value of biodiversity : consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values
• Biodiversity at global, National and local levels.
• Inida as a mega-diversity nation
• Hot-sports of biodiversity.
• Threats to biodiversity : habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts.
• Endangered and endemic species of India
• Conservation of biodiversity : In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
Unit 5 : Environmental Pollution
• Cause, effects and control measures of :-
a. Air pollution
b. Water pollution
c. Soil pollution
d. Marine pollution
e. Noise pollution
f. Thermal pollution
g. Nuclear hazards
• Solid waste Management : Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes.
• Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.
• Pollution case studies.
• Diaster management : floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
Unit 6 : Social Issues and the Environment
• From Unsustainable to Sustainable development
• Urban problems related to energy
• Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management
• Resettlement and rahabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. Case Studies
• Environmental ethics : Issues and possible solutions.
• Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Case Studies.
• Wasteland reclamation.
• Consumerism and waste products.
• Environment Protection Act.
• Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.
• Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act
• Wildlife Protection Act
• Forest Conservation Act
• Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation.
• Public awareness.
Unit 7 : Human Population and the Environment
• Population growth, variation among nations.
• Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme.
• Environment and human health.
• Human Rights.
• Value Education.
• Women and Child Welfare.
• Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health.
• Case Studies.
Unit 8 : Field work
• Visit to a local area to document environmental assetsriver/forest/grassland/hill/mountain
• Visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural
• Study of common plants, insects, birds.
• Study of simple ecosystems-pond, river, hill slopes, etc. (Field work Equal to 5 lecture hours)