trainee5's blog

(Download) NCERT Book For Class IX : Maths

(Download) NCERT Book For Class IX : Maths

Table of Contents

CHAPTER - 1 : NUMBER SYSTEMS
CHAPTER - 2 : POLYNOMIALS
CHAPTER - 3 : COORDINATE GEOMETRY
CHAPTER - 4 : LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
CHAPTER - 5 : INTRODUCTION TO EUCLID’S GEOMETRY

Download Here!

Buy NCERT Texts Book in Print Copy

Printed Study Material for IAS Exam (UPSC Pre Cum Mains Combo)

Get Gist of NCERT Books Study Kit for UPSC Exams

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Geography (Resource and Development)

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Geography

Table of Content

  • Chapter 1 Resources
  • Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
  • Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources
  • Chapter 4 Agriculture
  • Chapter 5 Industries
  • Chapter 6 Human Resources

(E-Book) Current Affairs GK for UPSC, IAS Exams - MAY 2021 PDF

General Awareness for UPSC Exams - MAY 2021

Current Affairs GK for UPSC, IAS Exams - MAY 2021 PDF

  • Medium: English
  • E-BOOK NAME : IAS Current Affairs GK PDF - MAY 2021
  • Total Pages: 85
  • PRICE: 49/- FREE/- (only for few days)
  • Hosting Charges: NIL
  • File Type: PDF File Download Link via Email

Covered Topics:

  • National
  • International
  • Business And Economy
  • Science and Technology
  • Environment
  • Sports
  • MCQ Questions

Click Here to Download PDF

Related E-Books:

(Getting Started) Public Administration Strategy by Topper Nidhin K Biju (AIR-89)



(Getting Started) Public Administration Strategy by Topper Nidhin K Biju (AIR-89)



Nidhin K Biju is a Delhi native who cleared the UPSC Civil Services 2019 examination with an all India rank of 89. He is trained in Electronics and Communication Engineering and this was his 3rd attempt. Although there was immense pressure on him to clear the exam at the very first attempt, with time he learned to treat this exam as the marathon that it is and not a 100m race. His choice of optional was public administration and he has scored an impressive 274 in his optional papers combined. Here we share with you his strategy for Pub Ad Optional.

Why Choose Public Administration As Your Optional?

As always, the very first criteria for choosing an option should be your interest in the subject. A lot of the aspirants pursue civil services with administrative service in mind, so many may find Public Administration a suitable subject. Other than this, there are a few more perks of choosing it as your optional –

  • Public Administration is dynamic and a lot of the information one can consume from their day-to-day current affairs studies.
  • There is plenty of interlinking with General Studies, especially paper-II and it helps in combined preparation.
  • It has a crisp and short syllabus allowing one to complete the whole syllabus in 3 to 4 months.
  • Again, it is an extremely relevant subject for any administrator.

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes & Books

Paper-I

  1. New Horizons Of Public Administration by Mohit Bhattacharya
  2. Administrative Thinkers by Prasad and Prasad
  3. Public Administration Online Blogs and Articles

This is the theoretical part of the optional. 

Paper-II

  1. Public Administration by Radhabinod Aribam
  2. Indian Public Administration by Arora and Goyal

UPSC Public Administration Study Notes (100% Syllabus Covered)

Common Important Sources

  1. 2nd ARC Reports

    1. Public Order – 5th Report
    2. Local Government – 6th Report
    3. Personnel Administration – 10th Report
    4. Promoting e-Governance – 11th Report
    5. Citizen-Centric Administration – 12th Report
    6. Financial Management – 14th Report
    7. State And District Administration – 15th Report
  2. Sarkaria Commission Report Summary
  3. Punchhi Commission Report Summary

How To Read And Make Notes

One important tip Nidhin starts with is you DO NOT SKIP Mohit Bhattacharya. Yes, the language is difficult and it takes time to navigate through the book, but it is the bible of Public Administration and well worth the effort. Next comes Prasad and Prasad which lists 20 thinkers, Pick a thinker a day, do not pressurize yourself, and you will still complete it within 20 days. Make short notes on the second read for both books. Concentrate on just familiarizing and understanding in the first iteration. Revision is key; revise as many times as feasible.

Increase Your Score With These Simple Tips

Use diagrams and flowcharts to enhance answers

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

A lot of aspirants choose Public Administration as their optional. It is easy to get lost in the crowd. To ensure that you score better than average and thus better your chances at selection, follow these simple tips –

  • Interlink Papers I and II wherever possible. This displays a depth of understanding and capability to logically analyze events.
  • Quote thinkers and use their theories and keywords in those theories wherever possible.
  • Try to use current affairs based examples wherever you get the chance to.

Hopefully, with the right number of revisions and the right amount of practice, you will now clear your exam with your optional marks pushing you towards your goals. 

Best of luck!

Online Test Series For UPSC (Pre.) Exam

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Modern Indian History (Part II)

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Modern Indian History (Part II)

Table of Content

  • Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
  •  Civilising the “Native”, Educating the Nation
  •  Women, Caste and Reform
  •  The Changing World of Visual Arts
  •  The Making of the National Movement: 1870s--1947
  •  India After Independence

Download Here!

Buy Print Copy of this Book

Printed Study Material for IAS Exam (UPSC Pre Cum Mains Combo)

Get Gist of NCERT Books Study Kit for UPSC Exams

(Getting Started) Psychology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Ravi Jain (AIR-9)



(Getting Started) Psychology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Ravi Jain (AIR-9)



AIR-9 Ravi Jain, UPSC 2019

Ravi Jain is a Jharkhand native and a serving Assistant Commissioner of State Tax who qualified for UPSC Civil Services in 2019 with the incredible all India rank of 9. He is an engineer with a B. Tech degree in Instrumentation & Control from Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology. Post-graduation he had worked with a private firm for 3 years. He had previously cleared Bihar Public Service Commission and Staff Selection Commission exams. 

Things To Consider Before Taking Up Psychology Optional

Before taking up Psychology as your optional, these are the aspects Ravi advises you to consider –

Pros

Cons

Interesting subject

Very lengthy syllabus

Utilitarian in approach

Integrated reading material is hard to come by

Provides some background for Essay and Ethics paper

Traditionally low scoring

Sources And Strategy

Start with the basic NCERT books and Ravi highly recommends watching the Crash Course Psychology Series on Youtube . He then recommends moving on to the books by Robert Barron, Morgan and King, and Saundra K. Ciccarelli for Paper-I. Making notes as per the topics mentioned in the syllabus is very important as it helps you consolidate all information at the same place and helps in quick revision later. Keep in mind these are the notes you will be revising in the 5 days between your GS and Optional paper. You need them to be short and crisp and all-encompassing.

For paper-II, Smarak Swain can be used as the primary source. Using flowcharts and diagrams can improve your scores. Think and keep a stock of a few you can use. Do not try to think it up during the exam itself. Ravi had enrolled in Pathak Sir’s coaching. He recommends accessing the coaching notes from his classes either online in PDF form or photocopies from the markets in Delhi.

Must-read books for psychology optional

Answer Writing Tips

Keep the following in mind when writing your Psychology optional answers –

  • Use your own words and keep the language simplistic and fluid.
  • Divide answer into subsections as per the demand of the question.
  • Briefly introduce the concepts mentioned in the form of keywords in the question.
  • When defining any term, use the standard definition widely accepted, along with the name of the significant psychologist.
  • Simple self-explanatory examples will help you earn brownie points with the examiner.
  • Quoting research work by relevant psychologists lend an extra edge to your answers.
  • Explore different dimensions such as interlinking of concepts and comparisons.
  • Do not restrict yourself by the paper you are writing. Interlinking terms and concepts across papers present to the examiner a degree of expertise that fetch you higher scores.
  • Incorporate flowcharts and diagrams wherever possible to break away from the monotony of words as well as express yourself better.
  • Writing in points than paragraphs usually give the illusion of cleaner answers with more facts.
  • Ensure your conclusion leaves the reader wanting more and hopeful for the future.

Message To Aspirants

UPSC has a lot of information and areas to be covered so utilize your time judiciously. Choose the optional that is the best fit for you instead of trying to find quick solutions. 

Take a break now and then, seek out friends and family, keep your spirits up. It’s a long journey up ahead.  

Best of Luck.

Online Test Series For UPSC (Pre.) Exam

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Getting Started) Anthropology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Geetanjali Sharma (AIR-32)



(Getting Started) Anthropology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Geetanjali Sharma (AIR-32)



Geetanjali Sharma secured the coveted all India rank of 32 in her 3rd attempt in UPSC Civil Services 2019. In her first attempt in 2016, she was unable to clear the upsc prelims stage and in 2018, despite reaching the interviews phase, she failed to make it to the final list. She is a graduate of the Hindu College, Delhi in Zoology. In 2016 she took up Zoology as her optional. However, in 2018, she researched more and finally decided that Anthropology was her best bet. Here, we share her strategy on how to prepare for Anthropology as an optional for UPSC Civil Services.

Why Anthropology?

For anyone looking at Anthropology as your optional choice, remember it is one of the easiest optionals to gather resources for. Whether you look at online resources, or offline, or even books and toppers’ strategies, Anthropology will not fail you. However, the most important factor in choosing an optional should always be your interest in it because you end up having to go through the whole syllabus 6 to 7 times, and without sustained interests that is impossible to do.

Detailed Booklist And Sources for Anthropology

This is Geetanjali’s entire list of sources –

Physical Anthropology (Paper 1)

Title 

Primary source 

Additional sources 

Human evolution and emergence of man 

Internet 

P. Nath, Braintree 

Characteristics of primates 

Internet 

P. Nath, Braintree 

Phylogenetic status, characteristics, and geographical distribution of hominins 

Internet 

P. Nath 

The biological basis of life 

Khan Academy videos 

Biology NCERT class 11th/12th 

Human genetics 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Mendelian genetics in man-family study etc 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdf 

Concept of genetic polymorphism etc 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Race and Racism 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

P. Nath, Internet 

Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker 

Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

Kerala SCERT, P. Nath, Internet 

Epidemiological Anthropology 

Internet 

 

Concept of human growth and development 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdf 

The relevance of menarche, menopause, etc 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Applications of anthropology 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

P. Nath, Kerala SCERT 

P. Nath is one of the most popular books for UPSC Physical Anthropology

Socio-Cultural Anthropology (Paper 1)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Meaning, scope, and development of Anthropology 

IGNOU pdf 

 

Relationship with other disciplines 

Braintree 

 

Main branches of anthropology and relevance 

IGNOU pdf 

 

Nature of culture 

Muniratnam notes 

Braintree, Internet 

Nature of society 

Sociology IGNOU pdf 

Sociology NCERT 

Marriage 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Family 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Kinship 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Economic Organisation 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Political organization and social control 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf (also Sociology pdfs) 

Religion 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Internet, Kerala SCERT 

Anthropological theories 

Internet and IGNOU pdfs 

Himanshu Jain notes on theories 

Culture, Language, and Communication 

Ember and Ember 

Internet 

Research methods in Anthropology 

IGNOU pdf 

Kerala SCERT 

Archaeological Anthropology (Paper 1 and Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Cultural Evolution 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet, Muniratnam Notes 

Evolution of Indian Culture and Civilization 

Muniratnam Notes 

Sachin Gupta sir notes, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Palaeo Anthropological pieces of evidence from India 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Ethno-archaeology in India 

Internet 

Topper test copies for more examples 

This is the topic that intrigued Geetanjali Enough To Pick Up Anthropology Optional

Indian Anthropology (Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Demographic profile of Inida 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Braintree, IGNOU pdf 

Structure and nature of traditional Indian social system 

Braintree 

Muniratnam notes 

Caste System in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Muniratnam notes, Braintree, IGNOU Sociology pdfs, Internet, Topper answer copies, Nadeem Hasnain 

Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit complex 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet, Muniratnam notes, Nadeem Hasnain 

Impact of Buddhism etc on Indian society 

Muniratnam notes 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Emergence, growth, and development in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Kerala SCERT, Various pdfs 

Indian Village 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Linguistic and religious minorities and their status 

Internet 

 

Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society 

IGNOU pdf 

Nadeem Hasnain, Internet 

 

Tribal Anthropology (Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

The tribal situation in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Nadeem Hasnain, Xaxa Committee report 

Problems of tribal communities 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Developmental projects and their impact 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Problems of exploitation and deprivation 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Social change and contemporary tribal societies 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Concept of Ethnicity 

IGNOU sociology pdfs 

Various pdfs (google drive link) 

Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, etc on tribal societies 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Internet 

Tribe and nation-state 

IGNOU pdf 

 

History of administration of tribal areas 

Xaxa Committee report 

Internet 

Concept of PVTGs 

Xaxa Committee report 

Internet 

Role of NGOs in tribal development 

Internet 

 

Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development 

Contributions of anthropology to understanding regionalism etc 

IGNOU pdf on ethnicity and ethnic movements 

Internet, Xaxa committee 

Geetanjali also has her internet sources such as PDFs and documents, etc. uploaded at this drive location

Advice To UPSC Aspirants

A good way to keep your revision on schedule

Start with checking out topper strategies and sources. Once you know what to cover, break it down into daily and weekly goals. Revision is key. Try to recall everything you have read about a topic immediately after finishing it. Set one day every 2 weeks to revise what all you have covered till then. Practice previous years’ questions and you should be able to pull off the seemingly impossible task of adding your name to the final list of successful aspirants. 

Best of luck.

Online Test Series For UPSC (Pre.) Exam

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 8)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-8)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q8.(a) "There are adequate legal mechanisms to address corruption malpractices in administration, but they have failed to curb the menace to any noticeable degree." In the light of this statement, discuss the efficacy the institution of Lokayukta in Indian States. (Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(b) Despite the constitutional provisions for representation, the voice weaker of sections is not having the desired impact in the realms of Panchayati Raj Institutions. Critically examine. (Free)

It is widely believed that the analysis of age, education, Caste, family structure, occupation, income, land holding, party affiliation, etc., are important in determining the nature of leadership. The socio-economic, educational and political background of the leaders would also enable us to anticipate as to what they are capable of doing, what we should expect from them and how well they are equipped to discharge the responsibilities developed upon them by the electorate. In this direction the Government of India made efforts to solve problems such as poverty, ill health, illiteracy, and backwardness of varied nature prevailing in rural areas, by giving grater attention to the uplift of the rural poor. Due to the illiteracy and ignorance of weaker section’s representatives, several welfare policies intended for the welfare of SC’s, ST’s and OBC’s are not implementing properly in the institutions of Panchayati Raj and suggest for effective implementation of these policies for the welfare of weaker sections and bring them to the main stream as well as equal opportunity as stipulated in the Indian Constitution. 

(c) Ideally citizen-administration interface is supposed to be based on trustworthiness and purposefulness, in reality it is observed to be plagued by suspicion, conflicts, stresses and strains. Do you agree? Elaborate.(Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Modern Indian History (Part I)

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Modern Indian History (Part I)

Table of Content

  • How, When and Where
  •  From Trade to Territory The Company Establishes Power
  •  Ruling the Countryside
  •  Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
  •  When People Rebel 1857 and After
  •  Colonialism and the City

Download Here!

Buy Print Copy of this Book

Printed Study Material for IAS Exam (UPSC Pre Cum Mains Combo)

Get Gist of NCERT Books Study Kit for UPSC Exams

(Getting Started) Increase Your UPSC Prelims Score by Option Elimination Techniques



(Getting Started) Increase Your UPSC Prelims Score by Option Elimination Techniques



 

UPSC Civil Services Prelims is just a days away and aspirants across the country are now focusing their attention on it. As anyone who has looked through enough topper interviews as well as gone through previous years’ questions will know, not all questions in UPSC prelims can be answered directly from knowledge. Some need deliberation. Almost half of the questions require one to eliminate the improbable answers and choose the one that remains. 

This is where Option Elimination Techniques come into play.

Top 5 Option Elimination Techniques

There are quite a few techniques one can use. These techniques are effective in solving UPSC papers. However, keep in mind UPSC likes to be unpredictable and shake things up quite often, so practice each of these techniques only when you are sure you can accept the fallout.

  1. Extreme Choices Are Seldom Right

Whenever an option mentions either “always”, “never”, “all”, “any” “drastically”, “enormously”, “exponentially” or conveys any such extreme stands, there is a good chance that the option is incorrect. Unless such an option is based on a historical or scientific fact, you can rest assured it is not the option you need to choose. 

  1. Deliberately Complicated Statements Are Most Probably Wrong

Some options given will deliberately use complicated jargon or have long-wounded sentences that serve no purpose. Given that answers are usually either facts or logical conclusions, these kinds of statements are meant to confuse aspirants. Such options are usually incorrect.

Postal Test Series for IAS PRE Exam (GS+CSAT) with OMR Sheets

  1. Options With Unnecessary Numerical Values Included

Look at this from the point of view of an examiner. The easiest way to provide a wrong option is to take an otherwise correct fact and slightly change the numbers. So until and unless the options have very obvious statistics, chances are it is going to be incorrect.

  1. One Of Two Opposite Choices Should Be Right

If two options are mirror opposites of each other, one of those will possibly be right. Even if you are not sure which one is correct, being able to shortlist 2 out of 4 options increases your chance of marking the correct answer from 25% to 50% automatically.

  1. One Of The Most Similar Choices Can Be Right

This again comes back to the mindset of the person setting the paper. The easiest way to shape incorrect options is to mimic the correct one and alter it partly. So chances are, of the 2 or 3 similar-sounding options, one would be correct. This again brings up your chance of choosing the right one up from 25% to 33% or 50% even.

Practice These Techniques With Caution

How Intelligent Guessing Works

Please remember the key – blind guesswork is not the answer, intelligent guesswork with proper logical backing is. UPSC awards 2 marks for a correct answer and deducts 0.66 for an incorrect answer. So, 3 incorrect answers cancel out the one answer you have correctly marked. This is why option elimination is considered a fair practice. However, taking random guesses will drastically bring down your chances.

Also, do not attempt these techniques directly in the exam hall without having tried them out in mocks. The reason is not everyone can make guesses 100% accurately. You need to know your accuracy before you attempt these techniques. You also need to practice them beforehand to understand exactly how they work and how to employ each technique properly. Otherwise, it is as good as blind guesswork.

Practice these techniques with the right blend of knowledge and logical reasoning, while knowing your strengths and weaknesses, and you will surely find your prelims score increase significantly.

Online Test Series For UPSC (Pre.) Exam

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 7)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-7)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q7.(a)  Ward committees in urban local governance have remained more tigers. The ideal of realizing effective people's participation in collaboration with local functionaries is still in the pipeline. Evaluate the gap in theory and practice.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(b) Police needs to be made accountable and freed from the grip of politics. It is a big challenge not only for law and order but also for the development of the country. Critically examine.

In the existing set-up, the police function under the executive control of the state government. According to the National Police Commission, the manner in which political control has been exercised over the police in this country has led to gross abuses, resulting in erosion of the rule of law and loss of police credibility as a professional organisation. The threat of transfer / suspension is the most potent weapon in the hands of the politician to bend the police down to his will. The Commission recommended that the superintendence of the state government over the police should be limited to ensure that police performance is in strict accordance with law. In the performance of its tasks, the police should be subject to overall guidance from the government which should lay down broad policies for adoption in different situations. There should however be no instructions in regard to actual operations in the field. In regard to investigation work, in any case, the police are beyond any intervention by the executive or politicians.

On 22 September 2006, the Supreme Court of India delivered a historic judgment in Prakash Singh v. Union of India, instructing central and state governments to comply with a set of seven directives that laid down practical mechanisms to kick-start police reform. The Court’s directives sought to achieve functional autonomy for the police (through security of tenure, streamlined appointment and transfer processes, and the creation of a “buffer body’ between the police and the government) and enhanced police accountability (both for organisational performance and individual misconduct.)

(c) Civil servants are trained to follow rules and procedures so much that they become bureaucrazy. Do you agree? Justify. 

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 6)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-6)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

 

 Q6.(a) The office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India stands on the pillar of autonomy. Discuss the major lacunae in the functioning of this constitutional body and also suggest measures for its strengthening.

There are several critics of the role played by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. In this regard, Paul H. Appleby has said, “The function of the C & A G in India is, in large measure an inheritance from colonial rule. The function did not impede British rule it upheld that rule and was an integral part of it. It greatly restricted the Indians who served the Government. These restrictions were sought by the Governments in a situation of administration largely concerned with police and taxation functions and not engaged in rapid pursuit of Welfare State objectives. 

To a larger extent these observations made by Appleby are misleading, unsound and incorrect. According to Ashok Chanda in all recognised democracies, audit is not just tolerated as a necessary evil, but is looked upon as a valued ally which brings to notice procedural and technical irregularities and lapses on the part of individuals, whether they be errors of judgement, negligence, or acts and intents of dishonesty. The contemporary roles of audit and administration are accepted as axiomatic, being essential for toning up the machinery of Government. Unfortunately, in India this conception of complementary relationship has yet to be evolved. Audit continues to be considered as something alien, something extraneous, and something of the nature of an impediment. A natural resistance has, thus, developed in the administrative system to the absorption of the suggestion of audit. This trend has become more and more pronounced in recent years. With the advent of independence and the acceptance of the concept of a welfare State, there should be the development of a commonness of  purpose of endeavour and achievement. The need between audit and administration has, thus, assumed paramount importance.

(b)  Implementation of administrative reforms is humongous and arduous. What lacks the push to realize the changes?

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(c)Immediate post-retirement appointments of high officers of government have become a new trend. Discuss its pros and cons.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 5)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-5)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q5. Answer the following in about 150 words each : 

(a)  Political neutrality of civil servants has been regarded as one of the cardinal principles in democratic governments. Is its sanctity being maintained in practice in India? Elucidate.

One of the important traditional virtues of Indian Civil services has been its neutrality. In the words of the Masterman Committee, “The characteristic which has long been recognized in the British administrator and extolled as a special virtue is his impartiality, and, in his public capacity, a mind untinged by political prepossession.” The main ingredients of the British concept of Civil Service neutrality may be listed as: “(i) public confidence in the freedom of the Civil Service from all political bias ; (ii) minister’s confidence in obtaining loyal. service from the civil servants irrespective of what political party is in power; (iii) high staff morale based on confidence that promotions and other rewards do not depend upon political origins or partisan activity but on merit alone.” The American concept of Civil Service neutrality, as described by the Hoover Commission, is: “They should keep clear of all political activity, preserve their neutrality in matter of policies..... This means that they must avoid such emotional attachment to the policies of any administration that they cannot accept, change and work in harmony with new leaders ....” Senior civil servants would necessarily refrain from all political activities that would affect adversely their ability to perform their official duties fairly, or that would tend to identify them personally with a political party or its policies.

(b)  Budget is an indicator of financial health of a polity which is reflected in the statement of income and expenditure. Discuss. (Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(c)  Panchayati Raj Institutions are still plagued by State control and domination of bureaucracy. Argue your case.  (Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(d)  Urban local governance is perpetually afflicted with lack of financial autonomy and starvation of funds. Elaborate. (Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(e)  There has been a long-standing demand for separation of police investigation from prosecution. Analyze its merits and demerits. (Paid)

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Science

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VIII : Science

Table of Contents

CHAPTER - 1 : CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER - 2 : MICROORGANISMS : FRIEND AND FOE
CHAPTER - 3 : SYNTHETIC FIBRES AND PLASTICS
CHAPTER - 4 : MATERIALS : METALS AND NON-METALS
CHAPTER - 5 : COAL AND PETROLEUM

Download Here!

Buy Print Copy of this Book

Printed Study Material for IAS Exam (UPSC Pre Cum Mains Combo)

Get Gist of NCERT Books Study Kit for UPSC Exams

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 4)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-4)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q4.(a) Examine the National Health Policy in the context of the current pandemic situation, Identify the problems and suggest improvements.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(b) The Speaker of the State Assembly has assumed a significant role in formations and dissolutions of governments. Examine under the circumstances of coalition governments with examples.

(c) At the district level, police functions under the overall supervision and control of the District Magistrate. Comment.

District Magistrate is responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the district. He is the head of criminal administration and supervises all Executive Magistrates in the district and controls and directs the actions of the police. He has supervisory powers over the administration of jails and lock-ups in the district. Maintenance of Law and order is the joint responsibility of the Superintendent of Police, who head the Police force in the district, under the supervision of  District Magistrate.

The intelligence system is organised by the Special Branch of the State Government. It has a small unit at the district level, which supplies information to the State and keeps informed of these developments to the S.P. and D .M. at district level. But S.P. and D.M. do not solely depend on this official information, they also develop their own sources and check and cross-check the intelligence gathered by the official unit. Timely information is a great help in maintaining law and order. The police acts on the orders of the Magistrate.

The relationship between the DM and Superintendent of police is full of tension. The SP feels that his position has un-necessarily been subordinated to that of the DM, but the control of law and order by DM has stood the test of times since its inception. He being the head of district administration, has wider resources to gather information and much broader view of administration compared to S.P. Many arguments have been given on both sides but the controversy is continuing.

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

(Getting Started) Last Few Months Preparation Strategy For UPSC Pre Exams



(Getting Started) Last Few Months Preparation Strategy For UPSC Pre Exams



Image result for upsc prelims beginners

With just a few months left for the UPSC Civil Services Prelims examination, aspirants are clamoring for last-minute preparation and prelims specific study plans. Many have been working on this exam for years, some for months, and there are still some who just started and hope to still get across the preliminary barrier. For all of you, here is a comprehensive plan to help you improve your chances of cracking prelims.

FEB-MARCH

Beginners

This is going to be hard. You are trying to cram in 12 to 24 months of preparation into 5 months. So brace yourself to work very hard and relentlessly. Start with NCERT Books for History, Geography, Polity, Economy, Society and Arts and Culture. Aim to complete the class 11 and 12 NCERTs. You do not have the time to delve deeper. Use the internet to look up concepts you are having difficulty grasping. There are roughly 20 books you need to finish up in a month.

NCERT Books Study Notes (Class-6 to 12, Old & New) for IAS, UPSC Exams

This has to be followed by completing the main sources for History and Polity. So do not do a deep dive at this point. Keep an hour aside to catch up on Current Affairs alongside this. Also, try to complete the current affairs for October 2020 to January 2021 in this window.

Experienced IAS Aspirants

It is revision time for those who have already been preparing for a while and now need to start with their prelims-centric revision. Start with revisiting the NCERTs or notes you may have made from them and with the aid of previous years’ questions, make separate notes for facts that are relevant precisely for your prelims preparation.

Now is also the right time to pay attention to the government schemes declared over the past year, alongside the budget and economic survey implications. Towards the end of March is also the right time to start taking upsc prelims based mock tests. Ensure you take at least 6 tests this month.

Image result for upsc books

Long List of Books To Cover

April-May

Beginners

Now that you have completed almost half the upsc syllabus, it is time to move on to completing the rest. Pick up Geography, Environment, Economics and the other elements still left. Go through the budget and economic survey presented. 

Finish up the current affairs for June to September of Last Year.

May is the ideal time to start taking mock tests as well. Do not get discouraged by your scores. Instead, use the mock questions to improve your knowledge. Pay attention to the last 10 years of prelims questions as well. Continue reading daily current affairs. Make sure you take at least 6 tests in May.

Serious Aspirants

Now is the time when your preparation becomes completely mock test centric. In these two months, you should complete at least 20 to 25 mock tests. Taking a test is not enough. Analyze your performance and look up answers you got wrong or questions you could not attempt. Make notes from these questions.

By May, yearly current affairs compilations should be out for your current affairs and you should start seriously completing them. There isn’t much to add to your knowledge anymore. Just keep taking tests, improving your elimination skills, and thus bettering your probable prelims scores.

June

Beginners

You have roughly 25 days before the examination. Utilize it to the fullest by taking at least 10 mock tests in exam settings. Try to solve another 15-20 test papers or at least going through the questions and solutions. Solve around 2 to 3 CSAT papers to ensure you qualify. Read up annual current affairs compilations and keep revising all the notes you have made. 

Make sure you relax your mind a day before the exam.

Experienced IAS Aspirants

You are done with your tests. You are done with accumulating new information or adding on. For the weeks preceding the exam you will simply revise your notes and brush up on any topic you feel less confident about. 

Try to relax before the exam date to better your performance.

Image result for upsc prelims beginners

Give it your best shot. 

With hard work and perseverance, you too can fulfill your IAS dream.

BEST OF LUCK.

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Getting Started) Strategy For UPSC Current Affairs Preparation by IAS Topper Priyank Kishore (AIR-61)



(Getting Started) Strategy For UPSC Current Affairs Preparation by IAS Topper Priyank Kishore (AIR-61)



Priyank Kishore has had the rare pleasure of making it to the final list of UPSC Civil Services Examination results, two years in a row. In his first attempt in 2018, he secured a rank of 274. He was undergoing training in Shimla as an IAAS officer when he received the good news of having cracked UPSC a second time with rank 61 in 2019. Priyank is a graduate from Ramdas College under Delhi University and holds a Postgraduate Degree in Economics.

Importance Of Current Affairs In UPSC

Over the past few years, current affairs have been given a lot of importance in UPSC, even more so in the prelims stage. However, UPSC maintains its trend of being unpredictable which means it is difficult to crack this portion of the paper by just reading monthly compilations. It is important to give it a little more time and effort.

How To Prepare Current Affairs For UPSC

Daily Newspapers

The most important step is to start reading the newspaper daily. However, you need to read it and not research each article in the news. You need not spend 2 or 3 hours each day just for news. Instead, try and read through it within 45 minutes to an hour. Do not debate which newspaper is better, or try to read more than one. Stick to either The Hindu or The Indian Express.

Current Affairs Compilations

In addition to reading the newspaper every day, Priyank also read the daily compilations. It acted as a mode of revision for him as well as a tool to make short digital notes. Moreover, although he did not rely on monthly magazines, he did use them as revision tools. Monthly magazines usually are compiled with a backlog of 10-15 days. Reading daily helped him avoid that.

UPSC Mains Specific Preparation

Although not a fan of compilations in general, Priyank did read the Mains365 compilation by Vision IAS between his prelims and mains. He also watched the show “The Big Picture” by RSTV for the 7 to 8 months before mains. He made very short notes from the show and tried to incorporate as much of the information he found relevant in his mains answers.

FAQs

Can we substitute newspaper-reading with compilations?

If you are in the initial phases of your preparation, newspaper reading is not only a source of current affairs but also a tool to improve your reading and comprehension skills, grammar, vocabulary, and writing skills. So you mustn't remove it completely from your preparation.

How should we revise current affairs?

In his first attempt, Priyank had subscribed to test series which had revision tests scheduled regularly that helped him revise his current affairs. Thereon he got into the habit of revising his current affairs using the notes he made every 3 weeks. He highly recommends this method. Every 3 months, he would set aside a day to revise just the current affairs of the past few months. Revising the current affairs 3 to 4 times throughout the year is important.

Priyank wishes all aspirants the very best!

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Getting Started) Strategy To Improve UPSC Mains Score by Chirag Jain (AIR-160)



(Getting Started) Strategy To Improve UPSC Mains Score by Chirag Jain (AIR-160)



Chirag Jain is one of the toppers of the prestigious UPSC Civil Services Examination of 2019. He is a  native of Bharatpur, Rajasthan, and a Mechanical Engineer from the National Institute of Technology, Jaipur. 2019 was his 3rd attempt. To date, he has cleared all his upsc prelims attempts, and his mains two out of three times. He has also worked in Tata Motors, Pune before finally achieving his long set dream of becoming a Civil Servant. Currently, he is training as an Indian Police Service officer with the UP cadre.

Strategy For UPSC MAINS GS-I 

  • Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

GS-I is very academic. Starting with culture, Chirag made study notes from Nitin Singhania. Notes for culture are not just factual like it is for prelims. Notes for Art and Culture in mains need to have examples and detailed stylistic discussions. For History, however, both prelims and mains require a similar level of in-depth note making. Chirag’s optional was Geography, so he didn’t have to study it separately for mains.

Strategy For UPSC MAINS GS-II and GS-III

  • Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

  • Technology, Economic Development, Bio‐diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

Unlike the static nature of GS-I, GS-II and GS-III are not only very dynamic but also more vague and vast. So instead of diving in head-on, Chirag made notes as per the topics mentioned in the UPSC syllabus. The major focus was on current affairs as UPSC tends to push recent news items for this part of the syllabus. Other than that, questions are directly asked from topics mentioned in the syllabus. He referred to Vision IAS value-added study material. Mains-365 by Vision IAS helped in internal security and environment aspects.

Strategy For UPSC MAINS GS-IV

Chirag suggests going through topper’s answer scripts for Ethics. Pick up examples, diagrams, flowcharts, structure, presentation, etc. from them and use them in your answers. Chirag used the Lexicon to make topic-wise notes for the whole syllabus in just about 50 pages. He highly recommends it.

Ethics Notes Structure

Make an excel sheet. Make columns 

  • – 1st column should have the term, 
  • 2nd column will have the definition, 
  • 3rd column an international example, 
  • 4th column a national example, 
  • 5th column related personality, 
  • 6th and final column a quote.

Answer Writing

Chirag highly recommends joining a test series. The challenge in UPSC mains is completing a well-written paper within 3 hours. For this, you should have the structure and content so well grasped that you need not think about it in the exam hall. Joining a test series allows you to do just that. Revision is another important aspect of ensuring you can recall all relevant points during the exam.

Top Tip : UPSC-PNR

This is Chirag’s most important tip for IAS Aspirants. Start with researching all you can about the exam. Follow it up by going through UPSC Mains previous years’ questions to understand the pattern. Then look at the syllabus and memorize it to the best you can. Go through toppers’ copies to pick up writing tips. Take mock tests religiously. Make short and crisp notes, and finally revise as many times as you can.

Essay

Chirag missed out on his first and second attempts largely due to poor scores in the Essay paper. On analyzing, he realized he used to miss out due to a lack of depth and variety of dimensions in his essays. On this attempt he added more arguments and examples, leading to in-depth analysis which pushed his scores higher. Using anecdotes or real-life examples in introductions and conclusions also helps make interesting answers. Ensure your conclusion is optimistic and has a connection to your introduction.

Message To Aspirants

UPSC is unpredictable so it is a matter of patience and hard work. Keep your sources limited, revise as many times as you can, and keep practicing. 

Surely you will make it to the final list. 

Best of luck.

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Getting Started) How To Study Maps for UPSC IAS Exams



(Getting Started) How To Study Maps for UPSC IAS Exams



Maps are an important part of your preparation for prelims as well as mains examination. Depending on your choice of optional, it may prove to be important there as well. Many aspirants feel burdened and distressed by the need to study maps. However, with the right strategy and understanding, it is not at all a difficult task.

  1. Start With The Neighbours

India is a large country with various physical and political boundaries within it. However, owing to our long coastline, we share borders with just a few countries. To not overwhelm yourself, start studying maps by studying the neighbors we have in each direction. Follow it up with the oceans on each side and the islands/land masses we have on those oceans.

  1. Latitudes and Longitudes

Check out which important lines pass through India and which of its states. Also, check out which lie in the tropics and subtropics. Questions are often framed from this area.

  1. States

Now look inwards. Check out all states and their neighbors. Know all the important cities of each state. Mark any city or town that has been in news recently. Know the industries each state holds. Also, note any international boundary a state may share with another country.

Download Maps PDF for UPSC Exams

  1. Rivers

Note down the important rivers in the country and which states they pass through. Know the main rivers and their tributaries. Also, have a basic understanding of water-sharing between states/with neighboring countries. Note down important dams and power generation bodies on rivers.

  1. Lakes

Lakes are important spots of biodiversity and integral to the environment section of your UPSC syllabus. Note famous lakes across the country and their features. 

  1. Mountains

India is bordered by the Himalayas in the North and has many more hills across the country. These are important from a security and environmental point of view. Know the highest peaks of every range, the flora, and fauna unique to them, tribes that might inhabit these ranges. Also, know the glaciers which are a source for perennial rivers.

  1. Natural Resources

India is rich in vegetation covers as well as minerals. Know the sites for different minerals and other excavations in the country and the ones off-shore. Note the different types of vegetation covers and the weather in those areas that give them their uniqueness.

  1. National Parks and Biospheres

These have become some favorite topics for UPSC to ask. Know all National parks in the country as well areas deemed protected under different environmental acts. Especially note those that have been in the news.

  1. World

Although UPSC focuses mainly on India, it is important to know the unique regions across the world such as deserts, biosphere hubs, unique rivers, etc.

  1. Places In News

And finally, keep an eye out for places that are mentioned in news articles, whether in India or around the world, as UPSC tends to frame questions from these sections. 

All these should cover your map preparation completely without anything left behind.

UPSC, IAS, Civil Services Exams - Printed Study Material

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD UPSC TOPPERS NOTES

Printed Study Material for UPSC IAS Exams

Online Coaching for IAS PRELIMS Exam

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VII : Geography (Our Environment)

(Download) NCERT Book For Class VII : Geography

Table of Content

  • Chapter 1 Environment
  • Chapter 2 Inside Our Earth
  • Chapter 3 Our Changing Earth
  • Chapter 4 Air
  • Chapter 5 Water
  • Chapter 6 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
  • Chapter 7 Human Environment–Settlement, Transport and Communication
  • Chapter 8 Human Environment Interactions The Tropical and the Subtropical Region
  • Chapter 9 Life in the Temperate Grasslands
  • Chapter 10 Life in the Deserts

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - trainee5's blog