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(Getting Started) UPSC Preparation Do's and Don'ts for Working Professionals



(Getting Started) UPSC Preparation Do's and Don'ts for Working Professionals



A lot of very successful UPSC toppers have cracked this exam while working a full-time job. Many continue to do so either due to financial restraints or due to the uncertainty associated with the Civil Services Examination. It is a myth that one cannot crack UPSC Civil Services while working. If anything, the UPSC interview panel regards those with a full-time job with high regard and even admires them for their dedication and time management skills. However, given the nature of this competitive exams, here are the top 7 do’s and don’ts working aspirants should keep in mind.

 

Burning the midnight oil (Picture Courtesy: Freepik)

 

  Stretch Out Your Preparation

The ideal time an aspirant is expected to give to UPSC is 12 to 18 months. But this is for a candidate who can spend 10+ hours a day for their preparation. When you work 8 hours a day for 5 or 6 days a week, along with some travel time, that is just not possible. The most a working candidate can give their preparation is about 4 hours on working days and maybe 8 to 10 hours on their day off. Because of this, the recommended period for a full-time working candidate is 24 to 36 months at the least. Depending on what you are comfortable with, this may stretch to 48 months as well. Do not panic. Remember, as someone with a full-time career, you also do not have the stress of ruining your professional options with a failure. So do not fret, take your time, and nail it!

Limit Your Resources

Remember, as a working candidate, you are already short of time. The UPSC syllabus is an endless abyss, and unless you are careful, you will get lost in it. Choose no more than one main source for each topic.  You can always research a little more over either the internet or a reference book. However, you should not spend too much time doing so. Stick to one newspaper like the Hindu and one current affairs monthly compilation. That will most definitely be enough for you to cover all bases.

Make Notes and Keep Revising

Multiple revisions are key to succeeding in the Civil Services Examination. A working professional does not have the luxury of reading through the same elaborate material over and over again. So, at the very first go, make crisp, short notes for each topic. Every time you need to revise a topic, just reach out for your notes. This will not only save you the time and effort that can be better utilized studying something new, but it will also help you have a grasp of the topic better than most other aspirants.

Making notes is absolutely essential (Picture Courtesy: Freepik)

Target Writing 3 to 4 Answers A Week

Answer Writing is crucial to securing a good rank in UPSC CSE. Unlike full-time aspirants, a working professional has to make a trade-off here and cannot possibly choose to write answers every day. However, by setting weekly targets, you ensure that you get enough practice and keep improving yourself gradually. The same goes for practicing Essay writing. Target 3 to 4 essays a month to ensure you ace that paper.

Don’t Neglect Your Optional

Keep a day dedicated to studying and practicing writing for your choice of optional. It carries a total of 500 marks and needs your full attention. Target completing your optional syllabus in 9 to 12 months. This way, by the time you sit for your Civil Services Examination, you will have an in-depth knowledge of your optional subject and that is exactly what UPSC requires.

Join a Test Series

If you are starting with a 24 months target, it is advisable to join a test series for both Prelims and Mains 6 to 9 months into your preparation. A test series allows you to analyze your strengths and weaknesses, understand where you stand with respect to the competition, and improve yourself so that you come out on top when you finally sit for UPSC CSE. For working professionals, this is extremely important to keep you motivated and help you not give up on your goals.

Finally, Save as Much Time as You Can

You need to conserve time and energy. A human being cannot keep overworking themselves for years and be in good enough mental and physical health to function at their best. Stay near your workplace to limit commute time, cook your week’s food requirement over the weekend or hire a tiffin service, limit social media presence, and decrease socializing considerably. These are minor sacrifices compared to the reward in the end.

At the end of the day, it is your name that will be on top of the merit list. Do what you must to get there. The destination is worth the difficult journey you will take.

Best of Luck.

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Organizations


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Organizations


  • ‘The essence of the contingency theory paradigm is that organizational effectiveness results from fitting characteristics of the organization, such as its structure, to contingencies that reflect the situation of the organization.'Give your reactions to this statement’. (20 marks 2012)
  • In the light of your discussion on 3(b) (i) above, also show where and how this 'fitting' differs essentially from the 'coping' with 'stress' from the environment emphasized by the systems theory of organization. (20 marks 2012)
  • "There is no doubt the departmentalisation is fraught with complexities. These are in part technical, in part political." Discuss. (20 marks 2009)
  • "To claim that a company or a corporation form is always more effective than a departmental form of organization is an outdated view. The real test of a sound structure is its capacity to balance decisional autonomy and operational flexibility with optimal accountability." Critically examine this statement. (60 marks 2008)
  • Explain the impact of privatisation on public administration with special reference to (60 marks 2010) (a) the issue of user fees. (b) public - private partnership. (c) outsourcing technique.
  • "The distinction between line and staff relative rather than absolute." Discuss.   (20 marks 2007)
  • “To talk about the regulatory framework is to talk about short governance.” Analyze the statement in the context of public private partnership and identify the elements of regulation.(15 marks, 2013)
  • “Delegation to independent agencies has taken place in an interdependent process driven by emulation.” Discuss in the context of independent regulatory agencies in the modern regulatory State. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “PPPs serve too many parties and too many interests … to be focussed.” Identify in the context of the statement, the parties involved in Public-Private Partnerships and their conflicting aims. (15  marks, 2015)
  • “The autonomy of Public Corporations raised a great debate about their internal working and external relation with the Ministers and the Parliament.”(10 marks, 2016)
  • “If the Regulatory Commissions…..are wholly independent, they are completely irresponsible for the doing of very important policy determining and Administrative work ….. on the other hand, to rob the commissions of their independence is seriously to menace the impartial performance of their judicial work.” (Cushman) Examine. (20 marks, 2016)
  • ”Systems Theory” in essence  is not a theory , but an approach to the study of administrative phenomena .” Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • Discuss the essential characteristics of public sector-centred and market-centred perspectives in Public Private Partnerships and also compare the two. (15 marks, 2018)
  • "An effective Management Information System (MIS) is the key to successful headquarter-field relationships."Comment. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “Form of an organisation influences the success of a public enterprise, but the choice of a form has always remained problematic." Discuss the statement in the context of the comparative merits and limitations of departments, corporations, companies and boards. Give illustrations. (20 marks, 2018)
  • “The advent of the regulatory regimes indicates the demise of the arbitrator state.” Comment. (15 Marks ,2019)
  • Contingency theory of organization is founded on the interplay of ‘external fit’ and ‘internal fit’. Discuss. (20 Marks,2019)
  • Departments, Boards and Commissions as forms of organization are dissimilar in the context of accountability and responsibility." Analyse. (10 Marks,2020)

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Administrative Behaviour


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Administrative Behaviour


  • Examine the respective roles of facts and values in the decision - making process. Is it possible to make value- free decisions in the government system ? How can government decisions be made more rational? (60 marks 2008)
  • What is meant by morale ? There is a belief that "moral and productivity go hand in hand and higher the morale, higher the productivity." Do you agree ? Substantiate. (60 marks 2007)
  • 'Man's motives ... in different subparts of the same organization may be different' [Edgar Schein]. Discuss. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Motivation theory is not synonymous with behaviour theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behaviour while behaviour is almost always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well." Comment. (20 marks 2004)
  • Leadership is the' influential increment over and above    mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization' [Katz and Kahn]. Analyze. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Leaders do the right things, managers do them rightly." (Bennis) Comment. (20 marks 2008)
  • Read the following instances carefully and suggest what specific perspectives on organizational psychology of motivation would help the concerned organization to reconcile the needs of the following four persons with the needs of organization: (30 marks, 2013)
  • Mr.A comes to his office with clocklike punctuality; does his work with impeccable honesty and integrity; takes orders from above gladly; responds well to overtures by peers; but neither mixes with anyone himself nor seeks anyone’s company. What is more, he seems quite happy in his isolation.
  • Mr.B is an efficient charge hand at the welding shop. He is very outgoing and makes friends fast, but falls out with them very fast too. He is, however, easily pacified when anyone asks him to calm down in the name of the organization.
  • Mr.C is completely happy and absorbed when he is teaching in the classes, and doesn’t at all mind when his workload gets heavier and covers new areas. But he gets angry when the finance section raises objection about his medical bills; and is furious that the higher administration is yet to give him full tenure.
  • Mr.D is a metallurgist in the forge shop of the steel plan, and has received honors for his innovativeness in modifying conventional alloys. He also paints well and values his painting skills far more than his metallurgy and is extremely unhappy that company house journal did not finally carry his water sketch on its front cover.
  • “Karl Marx’s interpretation of bureaucracy was rooted in the history of the nature of the State.” Evaluate. (10 marks, 2014)
  • Is Peter Drucker justified in saying, “Management principles should not tell us what to do, but only tell us what not to do”? Comment. (10 marks, 2014)
  • How does the Strategic Contingencies Theory of organizational design deal with problems arising from sub-unit centrality and non-substitutability? (15 marks, 2014)
  • According to McGregor, “True professional help is not in playing God with the client, but in placing professional knowledge and skill at the client’s disposal”. In the light of the above, justify how theory Y is indicative and not prescriptive. (20 marks, 2014)
  • Do you agree with the view that the charismatic approach of the mid-1970s is a “new version” of the Classical Trait Theory of Leadership? Give reasons. (10 marks, 2015)
  • “Information constitutes the life-blood of the functioning of an organisation.” Explain the utility and significance of communication in decision-making.  (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Morale can drive an organization forward or can lead to employees” discontent, poor job performance and absenteeism”. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in an organization.” Examine. (20 marks, 2016)
  • ”Blake and Mouton defined leadership styles based on two dimensions-concern for people and concern for production.” In the light of statement, discuss the Managerial Grid Model. Explain with reason which one of the styles is the best. (20 marks, 2016)
  • “Leaders do the right things; managers do them rightfully” –(Warren Bennis). Is this distinction by him valid ? Explain (10 marks, 2017)
  • “Abraham Maslow’s ‘ Hierarchy of Needs’ and  Frederick Herzberg’s “Two Factor Theory” have commonalities in the analysis  of human motivation .” Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • The Participative Management  School of Argyris and Likert advocates democracy within the administrative system.Will this approach  be equally useful to developing countries with evolving  democracies?  (20 marks, 2017)
  • "A leader is a people's developer" (Napoleon). Which aspects of subordinates' development can be positively influenced by a leader ? Discuss. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “Herbert Simon's book Administrative Behavior presents a synthesis of the classical and behavioural approaches to the study of Public Administration." Explain. (10 marks, 2018)
  • Communication represents the “Nerves of Government" (Karl Deutsch). How can the communication system in the government be made more effective, responsive and motivational ? (20 marks, 2018)
  • "Chester Barnard's model of 'Contribution-Satisfaction Equilibrium' is still considered a logical model of organisational motivation." Do you agree? Give arguments. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “If there is ever to be a science of Public Administration it must derive from an understanding of man’s behavior”. Explain. (10 Marks,2019)
  • “Chester Barnard in ‘The Function of the Executive’ injected ‘the social’ in the study of organization. Explain in this context how the executive is expected to play a much greater role than a manager.” (10 Marks,2019) 
  • Performance information use is a form of organizational behaviour that is influenced by individual job, organizational and environmental factors." Critically analyse.(20 Marks,2020)

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(Article) ANALYSIS OF UPSC 2019 EXAM FINAL RESULT CUT OFF



(Article) ANALYSIS OF UPSC 2019 EXAM FINAL RESULT CUT OFF



Context : 

Recently, the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has declared the final result of the Civil Services Examination 2019. The number of total qualified candidates is 829 including the prestigious services of IAS, IPS & IFS, IRS among others.

Key details :

  • A total of 829 candidates are recommended for Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and Indian Police Service (IPS), among other civil services.
  • Mr. Pradeep Singh secured the first rank while Mr. Jatin Kishore and Ms. Pratibha Verma secured the second and third ranks respectively in the UPSC Toppers list.

Break up of 829 candidates category wise are as under :

General

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

TOTAL

304

78

251

129

67

829


 

  • Out of 829 qualified candidates, 304 are from the General category, 78 from Economically Weaker Section (EWS), 251 from Other Backward Classes (OBC), 129 from Scheduled Castes (SC) and 67 from Scheduled Tribes (ST) categories.
  • The prestigious civil services examination is conducted every year in three phases i.e. preliminary, mains, and interview.

Reserve list :

  • A total of 182 candidates has been put under the reserve list.
  • A consolidated Reserve List of candidates along with the list of recommended candidates is maintained by the UPSC. 
  • This reserve list serves the purpose of the supplementary list which comes after the first main list. Both lists are based on the number of vacancies sanctioned in a particular year.

General

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

TOTAL

91

09

71

08

03

182

Significance of UPSC Cut Off score :

  • The minimum qualifying standards/marks secured by the last recommended candidate in various categories at various stages issued by the UPSC are as under:- 

Exams

GEN

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

PwBD-1

PwBD-2

PwBD-3

PwBD-5

Pre 2019

98

90

95.34

82

77.34

53.34

44.66

40.66

61.34

Mains 2019

751

696

718

706

699

663

698

374

561

Final 2019

961

909

925

898

893

861

890

653

708


UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2019 :

UPSC had conducted the IAS Prelims examination on 02nd June 2019 (Sunday) across the country. There were 2 compulsory papers i.e. General Ability Test (GAT) and the Civil Service Aptitude Test (CSAT) of 200 marks each, out of which CSAT is of qualifying nature.

UPSC CSE Mains Exam 2019 :

Those candidates qualified in prelims exams have been invited for the CSE Mains exams conducted in September 2019.

UPSC Civil Service Personality Test (Interview):

UPSC CSE Interview was conducted in February-July 2020. A total of 2304 candidates were invited to appear for the interview round.

EWS quota cut off lower than OBC category :

  • EWS quota was introduced for the first time in the 2019 exam. 
  • The Final cutoff list released by UPSC shows that the EWS category cutoff is lower than the OBC, SC, and ST at different stages of the exams.
  • For instance,
  •  In Pre-exam 2019: EWS cut off is 90 while the OBC cut off is 95.34.
  • In Mains exam 2019: EWS cut off is 696 while the OBC, SC, ST cut off is 718, 706, 699 respectively.
  • In Interview 2019: EWS cut off is 909 while the OBC cut off is 925. 
  • Every reserved category is having its own cut-off list that ultimately depends upon the number of candidates who actually come forward to avail the quota in that category and their subsequent performance. 
  • If few people are availing of the EWS quota, then its cut off is bound to be lower in comparison to other categories.
  • This also indicates that the candidates from the EWS category would have found it almost impossible to make it without quota.
  • It also raises questions over the extent of the differences between the backward among forwards & the other categories.

Way Forward :

UPSC CSE 2019 results have shown a bright & clear path to its future aspirants. It once again shows that quality & hard work is the way out to achieve the dreams of being a civil servant.

Differences among the reserved categories with their cut off now give a new dimension to think about the policies of development of various social groups in the country.

Happy Studies!

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(Article) SCIENTIFIC REVISION TECHNIQUES FOR UPSC



(Article) SCIENTIFIC REVISION TECHNIQUES FOR UPSC



The UPSC Civil Services Examinations are considered as one of the prestigious & toughest examinations in the country. It needs a lot of strategic preparation & smart work to crack this exam. In all these preparation strategies, revision is considered as the key to success.

However, It is not advisable to read so many book’s sources, but important is to refer only to fewer sources and compiled study notes & to revise it multiple times.

Revision makes you confidant to excel in the exams. Revision is just like going with the same route again & again and your mind will remember everything on its way automatically. 

We will discuss some scientifically proven techniques used all over the world to do the most important thing of any learning process i.e. REVISION.

How our mind works :

‘Hippocampus’ is a structure inside the Temporal Lobe of Cerebral Cortex that forms a part of the mind, which is responsible for memory. Hippocampus is made up of densely packed neurons. It plays a vital role in regulating learning, memory encoding, memory consolidation, and spatial navigation.

How to improve the capacity of the ‘Hippocampus’ :

Improving the capacity of the Hippocampus means improving the learning process i.e. memory. Hippocampus can be polished & improved as below :

  • Low or Nil intake of sugar- Yes, sugar creates an artificial layer over the Hippocampus just like fog & facilitate the memory fading process. It is very much advisable to either completely stop or minimize the intake of sugar or any sugar-based products. Definitely, its not an easy task, but can be done in a phased manner. 
  • 7-8 hrs of daily sleep - A good sleep is required to recharge your mind & to accelerate the memory building process.
  • Sufficient physical exercise - Moderate exercise/ yoga of 45-60 mins on daily basis is required to maintain blood circulation & supply of fresh oxygen to mind & blood.
  • Fresh air- Fresh oxygen is like a fuel for the body & the mind.
  • Healthy diet - Healthy, balanced & nutritious diet is a complement to fresh air & necessary for the memory storing & building process.
  • Be happy & confident - Extreme worry will not lead to anywhere. The only way to combat worry is to act towards your goal. The more you act towards reaching your goal, the more you complete your stepwise revision task, the more you feel confidant. Be happy & feel confidant. 

Some necessities before getting up ready for the revision :

  • Eat a healthy diet: No & never ever skip breakfast. A healthy diet is essential to give your mind the required capacity to re-process the knowledge.
  • Put your phone away: Minimise the use of your phone or keep it away for at least one hour while doing revision. Nothing is more important than your revision except a few medical emergencies.
  • Start early - Start your day early & try to finish your revision prior to the scheduled time, because every time you revise, your revision time should be reduced considerably.
  • Teach somebody- If possible teach somebody, this will revise your concepts & also helps to reorganize your thoughts along with regular revision.
  • Use of highlighter - Highlighter should be used judiciously. Like all the facts can be highlighted in red color, the key concept can be highlighted in green , any new concept/ words can be highlighted in yellow color. After finishing the first reading of any chapter, highlighter should be used in the second reading, so that unnecessary highlighting can be avoided.
  • Regular break - On an average 10-20 minutes break is required after every hour of studies. This will helps in processing & storing knowledge in your memory.

Revision Techniques:

Standard Revision Method -

This is the commonest revision method employed by most of the civil services aspirants. 

Whatever you studied in the first five days, revise those studies in the last two days of that week. 

Hence every week or month your revision time should increase continuously. In this way, you will be able to learn new chapters along with the revision of previous materials.

During the completion stage of your syllabus,90% of your time should be used in revision while 10% of time should be used in learning new things.

Frequent Revision Method-

This method is commonly used by aspirants who are preparing for exams having a limited, defined & syllabus having more of a static nature. Since this requires frequent revision giving a toll on timely completion of the syllabus. However, if implemented giving sufficient time & planning, this method also proved to be beneficial for civil services preparation.

In this method, revision to be done on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th & 21st day of the same topics/chapters. This is just like learning car driving. An initial one or two revision you will take some time but while doing subsequent revisions, the mind automatically gets trained to move ahead on the desired path. 

Best Way Forward :

Adopt any method of revision based on your needs & applicability. Keep your studies sources judiciously minimum instead of scattering on many sources. Make maximum possible revisions & check your progress through mock tests to sail successfully through this examination process.

Happy Studies!

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(Notification) UPSC Indian Economic Service/Indian Statistical Service Examination (IES/ISS), 2021



Notification) UPSC Indian Economic Service/Indian Statistical Service Examination, 2021



No.12/2/2020-E.I(B) : A combined competitive examination for recruitment to Junior Time Scale of the Services mentioned in Para 2 below will be held by the Union Public Service Commission commencing from 16th July, 2021 in accordance with the Rules published by the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation in the Gazette of India dated the 07th April, 2021. 

Post Details:

The Services to which recruitment is to be made on the results of this examination and the approximate number of vacancies in Junior Time Scale of the Services are given below :-
(i) Indian Economic Service - 15
(ii) Indian Statistical Service - 11

NOTE : 01 vacancy has been kept reserved for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities for Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Indian Statistical Service and no vacancy has been kept reserved for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities for  the Indian Economic Service by the Government through IES/ISS Exam, 2021.

Minimum Educational Qualifications :

(a) A candidate for the Indian Economic Service must have obtained a Post-Graduate Degree in Economics/Applied Economics/Business Economics/Econometrics from a University incorporated by of an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time.

(b) A candidate for the Indian Statistical Service must have obtained a Bachelor's Degree with Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics as one of the subject or a Master's degree in Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time. 

Public Administration Papers Topic : Administrative Thought


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Administrative Thought


  • In what respects is Taylor's 'Scientific Management' or classical motivational theory different from the classical organizational theory expounded by Gulick,Urwick etc? (15 marks 2012)
  • What light does Antonio Gramsci's critique of Taylorism throw on its socio - psychological underpinnings? (15 marks 2012)
  • 'In the canonization of this abstract idea of 'StaatSraison' are inseparably woven the sure instincts of the bureaucracy for the conditions which preserve its own power in the State' [Weber). Explain. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Taylor's contribution was not a set of general principles for organising work efficiency, but a set of operating procedures that could be employed in each concrete situation to secure their application." (20 marks 2009)
  • "Taylor's scientific management ignored social and psychological factors." Comment. (20 marks 2007)
  • Weber's ideas of impersonal detachment and esprit de corps are incompatible. Explain. (60 marks2004)
  • "Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks empirical validity when applied to modern democratic administration." Examine. (20 marks 2003)
  • Consider the statements below: (i) "Technically, the bureaucracy represents the purest type of legal-rational authority."; (ii) "Bureaucracy does not represent the only type of legal authority." Identify the theoretical context and analyse the above statements. (30 marks 2009)
  • "Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed. from the common political life of the people; its chiefs as well as rank and file. Its motives, its objectives, its. policy, its standards must be bureaucratic." - Discuss. (20 marks 2004)
  • Explain the 'Peter Principle' in respect of promotion policy in a hierarchical organisation. (20 marks 2010)
  • Discuss the main approaches to increase the efficiency of government and public administration. (60 marks 2006)
  • Critically examine the Classical Science of Administration with special reference to its criticism by Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl.  (60 marks 2006)
  • "The failure of classical science of administration lies in its capacity to confront theory with evidence." Discuss. (20 marks 2005)
  • Critically examine conflict resolution according to M. P. Follett. Explain how McGregor took forward her ideas to the context of complex organizations. (30 marks 2011)
  • "Mary Parker Follett was far ahead of her times." Discuss. (20 marks 2008)
  • "The main problem with Mary Parker Follett's work is that her idealism is showing". Explain. (20 marks 2006)
  •  In Follett's view, "authority belongs to the job and stays with the job." Explain. (20 marks 2005)
  • To what extent has the human relations movement contributed to the knowledge and. practice within the field of personnel administration? (60 marks 2006)
  • "The Barnard - Simon Theory of Organisation is essentially a theory of motivation." Comment. (20 marks 2009)
  • "Organisation is a system of consciously coordinated   activities or forces of two or more persons." Comment. (20 marks 2005)
  • 'Three features characterize Simon's original view of bounded rationality : search for alternatives, satisfying, and aspiration adaptation.' Elucidate.  (20 marks 2012)
  • "Simon's identifying decision - making as the core field of public administration appears logically acceptable but his positivist underpinning is problematic." Critically examine the statement. (40 marks 2010)
  • "Simon's work has had major implications for the study of public administration and the practice of public administration professionalism." Comment. (20 marks 2006)
  • "In McGregor's view, the managerial cosmology meaningfully addresses the understanding of manager and his role perceptions." Explain. (20 marks 2010)
  • 'The successful management leaders are found in Likert's 'System - 4' approach to organisational leadership." Examine. (20 marks 2010)
  • Analyse McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor's message has become more relevant and more important ? Substantiate your answer. (60 marks 2007)
  • The theory of organizational incompetence has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ views on this. (10 marks, 2013)
  • In the globalized Public Administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves. Comment (10 marks, 2013)
  • “The design of physical structures, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principle consideration.” “An organization is a system of interrelated social behaviors of participants” Analyses these statements and evaluate the contribution of the respective approach to Administrative theory. (25 marks, 2013)
  • Decisions are not made by organizations, but by human beings behaving as the members of organizations. How do Bernard and Herbert A. Simon conceptualize the relation between decision of the individual employee and the organizational authority? (20 marks, 2013)
  • What is the nature of psychological contract pursued by organizational management through authority and employees through exertion of upward influence?  (15 marks, 2013)
  • Structure theory is by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. (25 marks, 2013)
  • “Adaptive, problem-solving, temporary systems of diverse specialists, linked together by coordinating executives in an organic flux – this is the original form that will gradually replace bureaucracy.” Discuss, in the light of this statement, the ‘end of bureaucracy’ thesis and its strengths and limitations. (10 marks, 2014)
  • “Taylor’s ideas need modification in the context of post-industrial economies in contemporary era.” Justify with reasons. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “The notion of informal organization is a residual of cafeteria concept of diverse and sprawling contents.” How does Gouldner establish the need for understanding the inter digitations between the ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ organization? (15 marks, 2014)
  • “Contemporary Organisational theory seems further afield of Chester Barnard’s Functions of the Executive than of organisational ecology.” Examine the statement in the light of ecological elements in Barnard’s thought. (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Follett’s work was not directed towards the resolution of the conflict of ideas, but towards the resolution of structural conflicts between workers and capitalists.” In the light of the statement critically evaluate Follett’s idea of dynamic administration. (20 marks, 2015)
  • “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks emotional validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Comment. (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Taylorism is considered very controversial despite its popularity.” (Stephen P. Waring) Comment. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “Bureau-Shaping Model has been developed as a response to the Budget-Maximizing Model.” (15 marks, 2016)
  • “What is distinctive about the Classical and Human Relations Schools of thought administration is their complementarity  to each other “. Analyse (10 marks, 2017)
  • “Conflict is the appearance of differences –the difference of opinion and of interest”. (Mary Parker Follet). Comment(10 marks, 2017)
  • “Executive position imply a complex morality and require a high capacity of responsibility” – (Chester Bernand). Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The concepts of rationality and efficiency are intertwined in the bureaucratic analysis of Max Weber." Comment. (10 marks, 2018)
  • Dwight Waldo in his book, The Administrative State emphatically mentions that the roots of administrative theory lie in political theory. Critically examine Waldo's contention. (20 marks, 2018)
  •  “Bureau pathology denigrates competence in organization.” Explain. (10 Marks,2019)
  • Mary Parker Follett traced the foundational value of business and enterprise on her way to understand the organism of governmental machinery. Comment. (15 Marks,2019)
  • Principles of analysis and principles of action were not differentiated in Taylor's scientific management. Comment.(10 Marks,2020)
  • Administrative man bridges the psychological man and the rational man. Explain.(10 Marks,2020)
  •  "Organizations of the future will be organic-adaptive structures but temporary systems." Discuss how Warren Bennis characterizes the new form of organization.(15 Marks,2020)
  • "Productivity is not the result of working conditions but the result of emotional response of workers to work performed." Are Elton Mayo's findings relevant in contemporary organizations? (15 Marks,2020)
  • Performance information use is a form of organizational behaviour that is influenced by individual job, organizational and environmental factors." Critically analyse. (20 Marks,2020)

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Public Administration Papers Topic :  Introduction


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Introduction


  • "The Study of Administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law," Explain. (20 marks, 2010)
  • "Public and Private Administrations are two species of the same genius, but also have special values and techniques of their own." Comment (20 marks, 2007)
  • "If public administration is to play a major Legitimising role in governing our complex society, It needs to be more fully conceptualised." Discuss (20 marks, 2006)
  • "The field of Public Administration is a field of business." (Woodrow Wilson). (20 marks, 2009). Q.5 "Calling Woodrow Wilson,the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him." Comment (20 marks, 2008)
  • "Administrative questions are not political questions." Discuss (20 marks, 2005)
  • How would you trace the development of Public Administration in terms of paradigms from the politics /administration dichotomy of 1900-1926 to the rise of Public Administration as Public Administration after the formation of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) in the USA in 1970? (30 marks 2012)
  • In the evolution of the discipline of Public Administration. Minnowbrook Conference 1,2 and 3 reflect the discipline's reconceptualisation and its changing values. Elucidate. (30 marks 2011)
  • From Woodrow Wilson to Herbert Simon most writers on administration have taken the achievement of efficiency as the central objective. Justify the statement with references to the work of major writers. (60 marks 2009)
  • Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of Public Administration in the20th Century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of the 21st century ? (60 marks 2003)
  • "The advent of the concept of "roll back of the state" since the nineteen eighties has been altering the role of Public Administration but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society." Discuss. (60 marks 2003)
  •  "New Public Administration is a revolution or radicalism in words, and (at best) status-quo in skills or technologies." (20 marks 2009)
  • It is said that "the perspective of public administration, developed over a century, with a tradition of management of public institutions and services has received a jolt from the novelty of New Public Management". Bring out the core values, approaches and assumptions of traditional public administration and show how the New Public Management has attempted to change or retain them,and to what extent. (60 marks 2009)
  •  In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their administrative systems." Explain this phenomenon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement .  (60 marks 2008)
  • Civil Servants must be social moralists in action,living up  to Paul Appleby's dictum that 'responsible government is ethical government'. Examine this statement in the light of good governance. (30 marks 2011)
  • "Not merely governance but good governance is the key factor in achieving the United Nations Millennium Goals." Explain.  (20 marks 2010)
  •  Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples (60 marks 2004)
  • ‘On a more sophisticated plane public choice is concerned with "Pareto optimality", or at least with "Pareto improvements".’ Comment. (12 marks 2012)
  • Whereas Downs' model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen's model is framed by neoclassical thinking.
  • In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making. (30 marks 2011) 
  • How did the traditional Public Administration resolve the fundamentally irresolvable problem- creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not strong enough to endanger accountability? (10 marks, 2013)
  •  New Public Administration may have neither been the savior its enthusiasts promised, nor the devil its critics worried it would be. Discuss.(25 marks, 2013)
  • Public Administration in the neo-liberal era is government less by the instruments of accountability and more by those of external accountability Elaborate (10 marks, 2013)
  • A variety of different organizational arrangements can be used to provide different public goods and services. Example the theory underlying this proposition and its potential contribution. (15 marks, 2013)
  • Public interest is still inadequate as a ground concept to evaluate public policy. (25 marks, 2013)
  • What are the implications of the post-structuralism perspective on the discrete aspects of Public Administrations, coming from its epistemological positions? (10 marks, 2014)
  • “New Public Management and post-New Public Management reforms initiatives have affected the balance between managerial, political, administrative, legal, professional and social accountability.” Analyze. (20 marks, 2014)
  • Waldo’s The Administrative State’ provides a fundamental challenge to some of the orthodox premises. Explain. (10 marks, 2015)
  • Discuss how the Public Choice Theory promotes the concept of ‘Steering’ and undermines the concept of ‘Rowing’ in visualising efficient and effective administration. (10 marks, 2015)
  • “Globalisation has transformed the nature and character of State from traditional administrative Welfare State to a Corporate State.” Analyse the changes in the nature of public administration in this context. (20 marks, 2015)
  • “Public Administration is the translation of politics into the reality that citizens see   every day.”(Donald F. Kettl and James W . Fesler) Explain. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “The New Public Administration has seriously jolted the traditional concepts and outlook of the discipline and enriched the subject by imparting wider perspective by linking it closely to the society.” (Felix A. Nigro and Lloyd G. Nigro) Elucidate. (15 marks, 2016)
  • “Good governance is ensuring respect for human rights and strengthening democracy, promoting transparency and capacity in Public Administration.” (Kofi Annan) In the light of the statement, critically examine the criteria of good governance as provided by the United Nations and Nayef Al- Rodhan. (15 marks, 2016) 
  • Even after 130 years of its publication, Woodrow Wilson’s essay “The Study of Administration” continues to  have great relevance even today.” Comment (10 marks, 2017)
  • New Public Management has been branded by certain  scholars as ‘Neo-Taylorism’ . Is it a justified comparison? What factors have led to the decline of NPM as soon after its birth (20 marks, 2017)
  • “With every major transformation  in the applied world of Public Administration , the study of Public Administration  has grown in scope and intensity.” Discuss the relationship between the evolution of the discipline and profession of Public Administration. (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The scope of the discipline of Public Administration is determined by what an administrative system does." Does it mean that the scope of this discipline is boundaryless ? Explain. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “New Public Service approach is an improvement over its predecessor, New Public Management." Discuss. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “The Phenomenological Approach advocated by the New Public Administration has obstructed the path of theory building in Public Administration." Comment. (15 marks, 2018)
  • "Political and administrative systems have reciprocal relationships.” Discuss. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “Public Administration is constantly being reinvented because it is contextual.” Elaborate. (10 Marks, 2019)
  • With the entry of the concept of ‘good governance’ the discipline of Public Administration has shed its statist character. Explain. (15 Marks, 2019)
  • Has New Public Management failed in promoting a democratic polity? Analyze in the contexts of individuals as a citizen and individuals as a customer. (15 Marks, 2019)
  • “Globalization has constructed the administrative state to save and serve corporate power structure.” Discuss how transnational corporations impact government and public administration in the contemporary era. (20 Marks, 2019)
  • "The strength of Public Administration is in its exploration of the complexities and nuances of public policy making and implementation." Discuss. (10 Marks, 2020) (10 Marks, 2020)
  • The movement towards governance as an organizing concept for public administration and management is because the focus of administration has been shifting from the bureaucratic state to the 'hollow state' and 'third-party government. Critically examine. (20 Marks, 2020)
  • New Public Service emphasizes democracy and citizenship as the basis for public administration theory and practice. Elucidate. (20 Marks, 2020)
  • "Accountability under New Public Management has undergone a radical change, although the focus has continued to remain on management." Comment (20 Marks, 2020)

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(Article) BENEFITS OF STUDYING 8 HOURS INSTEAD OF 16 HOURS A DAY



(Article) BENEFITS OF STUDYING 8 HOURS INSTEAD OF 16 HOURS A DAY



There were two woodcutters, both used to cut woods for their living. Both of them work for the same time in the forest. One woodcutter becoming richer and richer while other was poor. One day a learned wise man saw their daily routine to find out their differences.

He learned something that changed his life & his way of thinking.

Both woodcutters used to work for 8 hours but the difference was that the rich woodcutter used to spend 4 hours to sharpen his axe but the other keep on cutting without improving his axe.

Moral of the story: 

Hope you got the point. Smart work is required to get through upsc exam instead of hard work. Hard work is required to do things smartly.

Think about :

If somebody wants to study 16 hours per day, of course, he can study for up to 24 hours also. After all, 24 is more than 16 hours.

But, the question here is ‘’Why do you want to increase your study hours’’? It’s just because you want to learn more.

Let me tell you that increasing the number of hours beyond a certain point is not only futile but even can be counter-productive.

How it drains your capacity :

After every passing hour, the capacity of the mind decreases to retain & recall the things compared to a fresh mind. You will end up just see the clock counting hours but mind it, your mind might not able to retain & recall things.

The quantity of learning in the second & subsequent hours of continuous study is less than the first fresh hour. If you continue to study without break for third, fourth, fifth & subsequent hours it will be a continuous deterioration in learning quality.

Even it may be negligible in the subsequent continuous hours. Although, you may have the satisfaction of moving towards that 12–14–16–20 hours study target, your output 

with every foregone hour will add continuously less and less to your learning.

Your whole concentration is on achieving the target of studying 14-16 hours, compromising the quality of the effective study, and then how will you able to concentrate?

Studying 15-16 hours per day is possible for only 2-3 days if very necessary. 

Studying at high pitch continuously drain your body's capacity to recover & hamper retaining capacity.

What can be done :

After an hour or one & half an hour, there must be a break of 15-20 mins. So that your mind can get sufficient time to restore & recall things in mind. 

 After every break go outdoors in a green environment, go jogging, or do any physical activity. This will circulate your blood movement & helps in getting oxygen to the mind.

With this recharge of fresh oxygen to the mind, your mind will be able to learn & retain things.

Your output will increase manifold.

Just don't stick with the pages you also want to remember something. Yes, you can study a novel or any interesting story continuously for 16 -20 hours if you want, although it’s not advisable.

But preparing for civil services or any other competitive exam is not like a story or novel, you need to remember the facts & concepts. For this, your mind needs sufficient time.

Don't deprive your body of sleep & other physical activity, it hampers your power to remember.  Need not to mention that all those stress hormones going to kick in a very bad way.

How to plan studies effectively :

Out of 8-10 hours, fix 6-8 hours per day for continuous new learning & remaining 2 hours for revision the previous days/week/month studies in a planned way. This will train your

mind to grab & retain new things & also your mind will be trained in recalling the previously stored items. 

In this way you are sharping your axe !

Like every machine & any other living being our body also has the optimum capacity, if it is utilized in a proper way it will work better & for a longer duration.

No need to torture your brain, mind and soul for 16 or 24 hours. It isn't an exercise. It is simply learning, retaining & recalling things. Study slowly. Enjoy it and concentration will come along. 

Best Way out :

The success mantra is the continuity & consistency of studies. Make your schedule in such a way so that you can study 8-10 hours daily on a routine basis without compromising

on other necessary leisure activities. 

Remember 3R- REVISION, RETAINING, RECALLING.

Best of Luck!

Happy Studies!

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Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 2)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-2)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q2.(a) District administration is the most important unit in governance. Most of the Central and State Government schemes and programmes are directed towards the district administration. In this context, discuss the challenges and problems posed to the district administration.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(b) The structural part of the Constitution of India is to a large extent derived from the Government of India Act, 1935, whereas its philosophical part has many other sources. Discuss the sources of the philosophical part.

Like  other  Constitutions, the  Indian Constitution also commences with a preamble, which reflects the aspirations and expectations of the people of India. Notably, the Indian Constitution has set up parliamentary democracy of the type established by the Federal Constitutions of Canada and A u s tr al ia . Nevertheless, this idealized notion, forming part of the motto of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” of the French Revolution has special relevance for a multi-racial and polity- a religious country like India. It would be clear from the foregoing description that the preamble of the Indian Constitution provides a framework of ideas and values for the Indian administration. Since the responsibility of enforcing the Constitution is that of the government,  it is expected of the administrative system, which is an integral component of the executive branch of government, to facilitate the application of the ideals of liberty, equality, justice, socialism and secularism in the governance of the country. Not only need governmental laws and politics reflect these interrelated ideas, but the functioning of the administrative system, including the attitudinal orientations and behaviour of administrators, should manifest these ideals and values. In an ideal-typical situation, the nature and performance of the administrative system would be judged in the context of the values forming its context. Nevertheless, any such appraisal will have to be realistic enough, taking into account the limitations imposed by a complex and volatile environment affecting administration.

(c) The public services in India are an evolution of the British Raj. Trace the Indianization of the services.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

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Study Notes for Public Administration Optional Mains - 100% Syllabus Covered

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

(Getting Started) Public Administration Strategy by Topper Nidhin K Biju (AIR-89)



(Getting Started) Public Administration Strategy by Topper Nidhin K Biju (AIR-89)



Nidhin K Biju is a Delhi native who cleared the UPSC Civil Services 2019 examination with an all India rank of 89. He is trained in Electronics and Communication Engineering and this was his 3rd attempt. Although there was immense pressure on him to clear the exam at the very first attempt, with time he learned to treat this exam as the marathon that it is and not a 100m race. His choice of optional was public administration and he has scored an impressive 274 in his optional papers combined. Here we share with you his strategy for Pub Ad Optional.

Why Choose Public Administration As Your Optional?

As always, the very first criteria for choosing an option should be your interest in the subject. A lot of the aspirants pursue civil services with administrative service in mind, so many may find Public Administration a suitable subject. Other than this, there are a few more perks of choosing it as your optional –

  • Public Administration is dynamic and a lot of the information one can consume from their day-to-day current affairs studies.
  • There is plenty of interlinking with General Studies, especially paper-II and it helps in combined preparation.
  • It has a crisp and short syllabus allowing one to complete the whole syllabus in 3 to 4 months.
  • Again, it is an extremely relevant subject for any administrator.

Online Course for Public Administration for IAS Mains

Study Notes & Books

Paper-I

  1. New Horizons Of Public Administration by Mohit Bhattacharya
  2. Administrative Thinkers by Prasad and Prasad
  3. Public Administration Online Blogs and Articles

This is the theoretical part of the optional. 

Paper-II

  1. Public Administration by Radhabinod Aribam
  2. Indian Public Administration by Arora and Goyal

UPSC Public Administration Study Notes (100% Syllabus Covered)

Common Important Sources

  1. 2nd ARC Reports

    1. Public Order – 5th Report
    2. Local Government – 6th Report
    3. Personnel Administration – 10th Report
    4. Promoting e-Governance – 11th Report
    5. Citizen-Centric Administration – 12th Report
    6. Financial Management – 14th Report
    7. State And District Administration – 15th Report
  2. Sarkaria Commission Report Summary
  3. Punchhi Commission Report Summary

How To Read And Make Notes

One important tip Nidhin starts with is you DO NOT SKIP Mohit Bhattacharya. Yes, the language is difficult and it takes time to navigate through the book, but it is the bible of Public Administration and well worth the effort. Next comes Prasad and Prasad which lists 20 thinkers, Pick a thinker a day, do not pressurize yourself, and you will still complete it within 20 days. Make short notes on the second read for both books. Concentrate on just familiarizing and understanding in the first iteration. Revision is key; revise as many times as feasible.

Increase Your Score With These Simple Tips

Use diagrams and flowcharts to enhance answers

Test Series for Public Administration Optional

A lot of aspirants choose Public Administration as their optional. It is easy to get lost in the crowd. To ensure that you score better than average and thus better your chances at selection, follow these simple tips –

  • Interlink Papers I and II wherever possible. This displays a depth of understanding and capability to logically analyze events.
  • Quote thinkers and use their theories and keywords in those theories wherever possible.
  • Try to use current affairs based examples wherever you get the chance to.

Hopefully, with the right number of revisions and the right amount of practice, you will now clear your exam with your optional marks pushing you towards your goals. 

Best of luck!

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(Article) TIPS & STRATEGY FOR UPSC Aspirants TO STAY MOTIVATED DURING COVID-19 SCENARIO



(Article) TIPS & STRATEGY FOR UPSC Aspirants TO STAY MOTIVATED DURING COVID-19 SCENARIO



In this devastating situation of COVID-19, professionals, service persons, political entities, economic stakeholders & the whole ecosystem are badly affected. All the students in school, colleges, or preparing for any competitive exams are no exception to it. It is a tough time especially for the aspirants who are preparing for UPSC Civil Services. Some of you might have left your lucrative job to opt for civil services preparation.

In this tough scenario, we are presenting you with some upsc tips & strategies to get going strongly for civil services preparation.

Most of the people are working in remote mode, feeling a little extra-challenged in engaging with civil services preparation. All the civil aspirants may find it difficult with increased stress outbursts.

While it’s a challenge for the aspirant, there are certain steps you can take to feel more motivated to engage in your preparation.

Consider the questions below & think how would you answer? 

  • What plans can I design for myself to boost my motivation?
  • How I can make engaging or interesting my preparation?
  • How my preparation benefit me down the road in near future?
  • How do I get myself to study even when I’m not in the mood?
  • Do I know about anything that hinders my motivation and what can be done to help?
  • What am I doing to keep myself energized & healthy and take care of my well-being?
  • Are the precautions that I’m taking to save with COVID19 is enough?
  • How am I managing, planning, or implementing my study routine?

And finally… 

  • What new practices do I need to start to help myself feel engaged and motivated?

Every aspirant may answer these questions based on his/her situation. You will be the best judge to judge your situation.

Now we will discuss what can be an ideal way out while responding to the above questions. These points will surely give an answer & strategy for all the above questions.

Optimistic about COVID 19:

  • Although COVID-19 has almost all the negative things, the aspirant must be an optimistic person to think best out of the waste.
  • This situation has given enough time for all the aspirants to study in detail. Since there are no exams & neither expected to be held in a few months. This has given you a lot of time to study in detail.
  • It is one of the best times to study especially for a person doing self-study. Since with the approaching date of exams, we mostly focus on important things leaving the less important topic.
  • It is the best time to go & refresh your basics by studying NCERT Books.
  • Make multiple revisions of all the upsc test papers & study notes. Make sure to revise all important topics by 10-12 times. A maximum revision of the same things makes you confidant & helps in the elimination method to be used in upsc preliminary exams.
  • For people whose optional subject is not ready due to lack of time, may prepare their optional subject. This is more beneficial for those whose syllabus is matching with the upsc preliminary exam syllabus.
  • Ethics, GS preparations, essay & language test for upsc mains can be prepared. This will give you an extra edge over other participants. Since the time gap between the pre & mains is very less as compared to the demanding syllabus.
  • COVID-19 has given you sufficient time to prepare leaving other disturbances like outings, partying, social gathering. So use this time wisely.

Plan your study : 

  • Start your day with a your schedule.
  • Break down your study plan into small, manageable tasks.
  • Make quarterly, monthly study plans & divide it into weekly & daily plans. 
  • Give yourself rewards for the tasks completed like completing your weekly or monthly targets.
  • Balance your studies with leisure time also.

Conscious about Health :

  • It is more than mandatory to keep yourself away from this COVID19 disease by adhering to all the precautionary guidelines.
  • A healthy person will always get an extra edge over a diseased person.
  • Exercise regularly & pay attention to sleep.
  • Eat healthy & immune-building foods.
  • Make just use of digital media & stay connected with your dear ones with a limited or nil connectivity to unnecessary peoples.

Think about the daily routine :

  • Taking breaks
  • Exercising
  • Eating right
  • Staying on a regular sleep schedule
  • Staying connected with dear ones.
  • Reaching out for help when you need it most.

Stay motivated :

  • Think about the reason you choose to become a civil servant, your ambition, future plans associated with that.
  • Think about the result declaration day when you will find your name in the selected list.
  • Think about the cherished faces of your family & dear ones.
  • If possible see motivation videos or read IAS Toppers success stories daily for 10-15 mins to have a daily dose of motivation.

You will be able to find & relate most of the answers to the above questions. Think positive & convert this dark COVID period into your GOLDEN period to write a new history.

Happy Studies!

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(Article) OLD NCERTs BOOKS: WAYS TO PREPARE FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES Exams



(Article) OLD NCERTs BOOKS: WAYS TO PREPARE FOR UPSC CIVIL SERVICES Exams



In this article, we will discuss the importance of NCERT books (especially the Old NCERT’s books), list of most important books, pros & cons about the old & new NCERTs as well.

If you are a serious aspirant for civil services, starting from scratch will be one of the best policies to be successful. For achieving your dream, the foundation started by studying school level old NCERTs books of humanities stream from standard 6th to 12th. 

Old NCERTs widely used in the 1990s & 2000s prior to the current edition. 

Benefits of Old NCERTs books: 

  • Class 6th to 12th all sections of 
  • These books are written for school students in easy language, which is very easy to understand.
  • All concepts regarding most of the topics will be easily understandable, which will pave the foundation for studying further in-depth studies of higher-level specialized books.
  • Many of the questions in almost every Govt exam are asked directly from the NCERT books.
  • NCERTs are the authentic source by Government itself. 
  • This easy language concept-based study will also help you to write your upsc mains exam. Since you will be able to express your topic to your examiner in an expressive way
  • At least one round of complete detailed studies of all the subjects required to prepare your ias exam foundation. Also, important points can be highlighted for quick revision.
  • Science can be studied in a selective way as per the upsc syllabus.

Get Old and New NCERT Study Notes

Old Vs New NCERTs: 

  • Old NCERTs are written in a direct manner & have factual data. Facts & concepts can be remembered easily. While, the new NCERTs are in a subjective manner, more focussed on thoughts, beliefs & cultures, which eventually help to evolve your thinking process.
  • Old NCERTs can be finished in less time, while new NCERT can take more time, it all depends on individual interest, reading & conceptualizing process.
  • Old NCERTs are more of to the point of factual information with less focus on diagrams compared to the new one.
  • Old NCERTs are very rich in its content, facts can be remembered easily. New NCERTs are in a narrative way, which sometimes lacks content & appeared less interesting. 
  • In all the exams, especially UPSC exams quality & content matters & not the source of studies.

Click Here to Download New NCERT Books PDF

Click Here to Download OLD NCERT Books PDF

How to read NCERTs:

  • Underline whatever you feel important at the very first reading or if you have sufficient time, just go through the complete subject at once & then underline in the second reading.
  • Memorize the underlined points in subsequent readings.
  • Make sure to revise the underlined data or you can club those underlined data in a single note & keep away the original books aside.
  • Just revise multiple times through your notes or the highlighted points through your books.
  • Try to study in such a fashion, so that NCERTs note can be revised in 8-10 hours of studies.

How to Get Old NCERTs: 

Most of the old ncert books are not published nowadays by NCERT. However, old books are available in students markets in Delhi and govt libraries. We have create created Old and New NCERT Notes which you can use for quick  reference.

Important ways to Study Old NCERT Books: 

  • History: Refer all the old NCERTs books from class 6th to 12th with more focus on class 9th & above for deep studies.
  • Geography: The geography section should be read since beginning to understand technical languages, words & concepts with more focus on agriculture & environment.
  • Political Science: This subject is explained at a very basic level, but you should read it to understand the concept, thinking & implementation process of the Government.
  • Economics: Economics is explained in class 9th & onward classes with the finest examples. This study will help you to grasp economic & later on helps to understand the current affairs topic at large. 

What after NCERTs books?

After studying NCERTs, students should opt for deep studies with standard books and study notes of reputed organisations, solve previous year upsc test papers, etc. along with multiple revision.

Best of Luck!

Happy Studies!

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(Getting Started) Psychology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Ravi Jain (AIR-9)



(Getting Started) Psychology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Ravi Jain (AIR-9)



AIR-9 Ravi Jain, UPSC 2019

Ravi Jain is a Jharkhand native and a serving Assistant Commissioner of State Tax who qualified for UPSC Civil Services in 2019 with the incredible all India rank of 9. He is an engineer with a B. Tech degree in Instrumentation & Control from Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology. Post-graduation he had worked with a private firm for 3 years. He had previously cleared Bihar Public Service Commission and Staff Selection Commission exams. 

Things To Consider Before Taking Up Psychology Optional

Before taking up Psychology as your optional, these are the aspects Ravi advises you to consider –

Pros

Cons

Interesting subject

Very lengthy syllabus

Utilitarian in approach

Integrated reading material is hard to come by

Provides some background for Essay and Ethics paper

Traditionally low scoring

Sources And Strategy

Start with the basic NCERT books and Ravi highly recommends watching the Crash Course Psychology Series on Youtube . He then recommends moving on to the books by Robert Barron, Morgan and King, and Saundra K. Ciccarelli for Paper-I. Making notes as per the topics mentioned in the syllabus is very important as it helps you consolidate all information at the same place and helps in quick revision later. Keep in mind these are the notes you will be revising in the 5 days between your GS and Optional paper. You need them to be short and crisp and all-encompassing.

For paper-II, Smarak Swain can be used as the primary source. Using flowcharts and diagrams can improve your scores. Think and keep a stock of a few you can use. Do not try to think it up during the exam itself. Ravi had enrolled in Pathak Sir’s coaching. He recommends accessing the coaching notes from his classes either online in PDF form or photocopies from the markets in Delhi.

Must-read books for psychology optional

Answer Writing Tips

Keep the following in mind when writing your Psychology optional answers –

  • Use your own words and keep the language simplistic and fluid.
  • Divide answer into subsections as per the demand of the question.
  • Briefly introduce the concepts mentioned in the form of keywords in the question.
  • When defining any term, use the standard definition widely accepted, along with the name of the significant psychologist.
  • Simple self-explanatory examples will help you earn brownie points with the examiner.
  • Quoting research work by relevant psychologists lend an extra edge to your answers.
  • Explore different dimensions such as interlinking of concepts and comparisons.
  • Do not restrict yourself by the paper you are writing. Interlinking terms and concepts across papers present to the examiner a degree of expertise that fetch you higher scores.
  • Incorporate flowcharts and diagrams wherever possible to break away from the monotony of words as well as express yourself better.
  • Writing in points than paragraphs usually give the illusion of cleaner answers with more facts.
  • Ensure your conclusion leaves the reader wanting more and hopeful for the future.

Message To Aspirants

UPSC has a lot of information and areas to be covered so utilize your time judiciously. Choose the optional that is the best fit for you instead of trying to find quick solutions. 

Take a break now and then, seek out friends and family, keep your spirits up. It’s a long journey up ahead.  

Best of Luck.

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(Getting Started) Anthropology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Geetanjali Sharma (AIR-32)



(Getting Started) Anthropology Optional Strategy by UPSC Topper Geetanjali Sharma (AIR-32)



Geetanjali Sharma secured the coveted all India rank of 32 in her 3rd attempt in UPSC Civil Services 2019. In her first attempt in 2016, she was unable to clear the upsc prelims stage and in 2018, despite reaching the interviews phase, she failed to make it to the final list. She is a graduate of the Hindu College, Delhi in Zoology. In 2016 she took up Zoology as her optional. However, in 2018, she researched more and finally decided that Anthropology was her best bet. Here, we share her strategy on how to prepare for Anthropology as an optional for UPSC Civil Services.

Why Anthropology?

For anyone looking at Anthropology as your optional choice, remember it is one of the easiest optionals to gather resources for. Whether you look at online resources, or offline, or even books and toppers’ strategies, Anthropology will not fail you. However, the most important factor in choosing an optional should always be your interest in it because you end up having to go through the whole syllabus 6 to 7 times, and without sustained interests that is impossible to do.

Detailed Booklist And Sources for Anthropology

This is Geetanjali’s entire list of sources –

Physical Anthropology (Paper 1)

Title 

Primary source 

Additional sources 

Human evolution and emergence of man 

Internet 

P. Nath, Braintree 

Characteristics of primates 

Internet 

P. Nath, Braintree 

Phylogenetic status, characteristics, and geographical distribution of hominins 

Internet 

P. Nath 

The biological basis of life 

Khan Academy videos 

Biology NCERT class 11th/12th 

Human genetics 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Mendelian genetics in man-family study etc 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdf 

Concept of genetic polymorphism etc 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdfs 

Race and Racism 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

P. Nath, Internet 

Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker 

Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

Kerala SCERT, P. Nath, Internet 

Epidemiological Anthropology 

Internet 

 

Concept of human growth and development 

P. Nath 

Internet, IGNOU pdf 

The relevance of menarche, menopause, etc 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Applications of anthropology 

IGNOU Notes pdf 

P. Nath, Kerala SCERT 

P. Nath is one of the most popular books for UPSC Physical Anthropology

Socio-Cultural Anthropology (Paper 1)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Meaning, scope, and development of Anthropology 

IGNOU pdf 

 

Relationship with other disciplines 

Braintree 

 

Main branches of anthropology and relevance 

IGNOU pdf 

 

Nature of culture 

Muniratnam notes 

Braintree, Internet 

Nature of society 

Sociology IGNOU pdf 

Sociology NCERT 

Marriage 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Family 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Kinship 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Economic Organisation 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Kerala SCERT 

Political organization and social control 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf (also Sociology pdfs) 

Religion 

Muniratnam notes 

IGNOU pdf, Internet, Kerala SCERT 

Anthropological theories 

Internet and IGNOU pdfs 

Himanshu Jain notes on theories 

Culture, Language, and Communication 

Ember and Ember 

Internet 

Research methods in Anthropology 

IGNOU pdf 

Kerala SCERT 

Archaeological Anthropology (Paper 1 and Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Cultural Evolution 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet, Muniratnam Notes 

Evolution of Indian Culture and Civilization 

Muniratnam Notes 

Sachin Gupta sir notes, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Palaeo Anthropological pieces of evidence from India 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Ethno-archaeology in India 

Internet 

Topper test copies for more examples 

This is the topic that intrigued Geetanjali Enough To Pick Up Anthropology Optional

Indian Anthropology (Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

Demographic profile of Inida 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Braintree, IGNOU pdf 

Structure and nature of traditional Indian social system 

Braintree 

Muniratnam notes 

Caste System in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Muniratnam notes, Braintree, IGNOU Sociology pdfs, Internet, Topper answer copies, Nadeem Hasnain 

Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit complex 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet, Muniratnam notes, Nadeem Hasnain 

Impact of Buddhism etc on Indian society 

Muniratnam notes 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Emergence, growth, and development in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Kerala SCERT, Various pdfs 

Indian Village 

IGNOU pdf 

Internet 

Linguistic and religious minorities and their status 

Internet 

 

Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society 

IGNOU pdf 

Nadeem Hasnain, Internet 

 

Tribal Anthropology (Paper 2)

Title 

Primary Source 

Additional Sources 

The tribal situation in India 

IGNOU pdf 

Nadeem Hasnain, Xaxa Committee report 

Problems of tribal communities 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Developmental projects and their impact 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Problems of exploitation and deprivation 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Social change and contemporary tribal societies 

Xaxa Committee report 

Nadeem Hasnain, IGNOU pdf, Internet 

Concept of Ethnicity 

IGNOU sociology pdfs 

Various pdfs (google drive link) 

Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, etc on tribal societies 

Nadeem Hasnain 

Internet 

Tribe and nation-state 

IGNOU pdf 

 

History of administration of tribal areas 

Xaxa Committee report 

Internet 

Concept of PVTGs 

Xaxa Committee report 

Internet 

Role of NGOs in tribal development 

Internet 

 

Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development 

Contributions of anthropology to understanding regionalism etc 

IGNOU pdf on ethnicity and ethnic movements 

Internet, Xaxa committee 

Geetanjali also has her internet sources such as PDFs and documents, etc. uploaded at this drive location

Advice To UPSC Aspirants

A good way to keep your revision on schedule

Start with checking out topper strategies and sources. Once you know what to cover, break it down into daily and weekly goals. Revision is key. Try to recall everything you have read about a topic immediately after finishing it. Set one day every 2 weeks to revise what all you have covered till then. Practice previous years’ questions and you should be able to pull off the seemingly impossible task of adding your name to the final list of successful aspirants. 

Best of luck.

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Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 1)

Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-1)

Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours
     

Q1. Answer the following in about 150 words each :

(a)  Mughal administration incorporated a combination of Indian and extra-Indian elements. Discuss. (Paid)

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(b)  There is a constant and continuous collision between bureaucratic values and democratic values which adversely affects development. Do you agree? Elaborate. (Free)

In most western Countries bureaucracy and democracy developed almost simultaneously. Thus the role of bureaucracy in a democracy is problematic because this is precisely one of the areas in which the democratic rules of the game are ill-defined, ambiguous, self-contradictory and controversial. The popular identification of bureaucracy with oppression cannot be taken lightly, since the extension of governmental functions has frequently curbed and sometimes obliterated the freedom of the individual. Yet, there is also much evidence to show that it has furthered the cause of freedom. Different scholars have approached the problem of overpowering bureaucracy’s threat to democracy in different ways. Some safeguards have already been referred to while discussing bureaucracy vis-a-vis democracy in developing societies. Some other scholars suggest ‘representative bureaucracy’ or ‘balanced bureaucracy’ or participatory bureaucracy’ as desirable structures to safeguard democracy.

(c)  Parliamentary committees are at the deliberative core of parliamentary work which is crucial for resining legislations. Elucidate.

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(d)  Considering India's diversity, the planning pattern of 'one-size-fits-all' was discarded in favour of indicative planning. To what extent has it been useful to India?

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(e)  Even if all the States combine together, they cannot have their way decision-making in the GST Council, unless the Union agrees to it. Analyse this from the perspective of federalism in India.

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Current Public Administration Magazine (MARCH 2021)


Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine


1. Accountability and Responsibility

  • Homes, classrooms should be realms of gender-sensitive conditioning

As women, we may have a fascination for pink and orange over blue. After years of working in the social development sector, we reflected upon how and why we developed a liking for these colours and not so much for the other. We asked young men around, and heard back, ―because that is how it is — boys prefer blue and girls prefer pink‖. That was not convincing enough.

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2. Indian Government and Politics

  • Education for civic reconstruction

Avijit Pathak, Professor of Sociology at JNU, in a recent article (‗Where the student is without fear‘, IE,February 27) laments the suppression of the spirit of critical thinking, questioning and disagreeing, in our classrooms at all levels, especially in institutions of higher learning.

Conformity, caution, and above all, fear, hang heavy like dark clouds over these centres of learning, which should ideally train young minds to think, understand, and actively work towards building a better society. This is the vision that inspired many great thinkers like Rabindranath Tagore and J C Bose, the poet and the scientist, to create institutions of higher learning where nationalism and nation-building rested on the foundations of creative ideas and experiments, in the service of all humanity, where the mind was without fear. The raison d‘être of education is to enrich and inspire young minds towards higher goals, encompassing all knowledge, whether traditional or modern, or beyond regional and national boundaries. 

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3. Social Administration

  • Development with Beloning

Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic and the general global slowdown, unemployment has become a major concern worldwide. The state of Haryana, too, has been unable to escape the wrath of this economic crisis. However, as the world‘s economies struggle to bounce back, Haryana has been taking steady strides towards change and development.

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4. Current Topic

  • The chilling effect of new IT rules

Online video streaming platforms have marked a new dawn for the Indian entertainment industry, providing choices beyond soap operas and formulaic storylines characteristic of traditional mediums like cinema and television that were designed for more public and family-oriented forms of consumption. However, the spectre of government regulation and criminalisation haunts this fledgling industry which has been fighting off attacks to its creative freedom on multiple fronts. While most recent conversation has focused on the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021 notified by the central government on February 25, busybodies have been trying to censor online video streaming platforms by petitioning the courts for a long time 

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5. Financial Administration

  • The police is deservedly proud of its work during Covid

When the lockdown was announced in March last year to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus, the police were required to implement the directions of the government. While we are mentally trained to deal with any emergency, the pandemic was a different ball game for the police, primarily a law enforcement agency. It had to enforce lockdown restrictions, social distancing norms, the wearing of masks, and provide succour to those in need. 

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Current Public Administration Magazine (FEBRUARY 2021)


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1. Accountability and Responsibility

  • Why Opposition must not only oppose

For anyone who cares about Indian democracy, the most important priority right now should be to restore political contestation for the power of the Indian state. Ultimately, what matters for the preservation of democracy is the distribution of power among competing factions — not the ideological or moral purity of the stakeholders. It is this political contestation that provides the context, backing and pressure for institutions of democracy to function as a countervailing power to the executive and thus allow multiple voices and narratives to coexist. It‘s not that the constitutional framework and moral rectitude are irrelevant, but institutions of democracy work only when political power is factionalised; else they are captured, overruled, bypassed or undermined. 

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2. Indian Government and Politics

  • Across the aisle: Coalitions are collaborations

There was a time when an idea or an ideology was a strong bond that brought together people from different states, speaking different languages, professing different faiths, born in different castes and belonging to different economic classes of society. Political parties were founded on the basis of an idea or an ideology. The foremost example in India is the Indian National Congress started in 1885.

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3. Social Administration

  • Gender Crisis

The COVID-19 pandemic‘s role in amplifying gender inequality has exacerbated one of the toughest challenges to the India story. Women are being pushed out of the workforce at an alarming rate, as several economic surveys and a special series of reports in this newspaper have highlighted. Women‘s labour participation rate in India was worryingly low to start with. But the economic blow of the pandemic has fallen disproportionately hard on women, with the female labour participation rate falling from around 11 per cent between mid-2018 and early 2020 to 9 per cent, according to data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). By November 2020, 49 per cent of total job losses were of women, who were already present in fewer numbers in the workforce. Again, while India was an outlier in the distressingly low levels of female urban workforce participation, the devastation of service sectors and the textile industry, which tend to employ more women, has battered urban women incomes. 

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4. Current Topic

  • Lateral Entry: A challenging administrative reform

The lack of administrative reform in India has frustrated many stakeholders for a long time. Occasionally, it finds a voice at the highest levels, most recently when, during a speech in Parliament, Prime Minister Modi complained about the overreach of the elite IAS cadre. Unsurprisingly, one of the key focus areas of such reform is enabling lateral entry into an otherwise ―permanent‖ system of administrators. But the success of lateral entry hinges entirely on how it is designed. 

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5. Indian Administration

  • The Election Commission of India was built on public trust

On March 15, the Citizens‘ Commission on Elections (CCE), chaired by retired Supreme Court judge Madan B Lokur, which examines critical aspects of conducting elections, released the second part of its report. Titled ―An Inquiry into India‘s Election System,‖ the report evaluated the integrity and inclusiveness of the electoral rolls, increasing criminalisation, the use of financial power to create an economic oligarchy, compliance with the model code of conduct, the role of media, particularly social media and the overall electoral process. 

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Secrets of UPSC Exam Success

Secrets of UPSC Exam Success

1. Planned studies, hard work and inner motivation are the keys to success.
2. Strong willpower and faith in God are keys to success.
3. Hard work, focused approach and faith in God are stepping-stones to success.
4. Hard work, good planning and positive approach.
5. Dedication, time management and hard work are secrets of success.
6. Self-confidence, planning and systematic study are stepping-stones to success.
7. Motivation and confidence are the keys to success.
8. Determination, positive attitude - key to success.
9. Patience, selection of optionals, hard work and good luck.

HARD WORK:

Remember that there is no substitute to hard work. No one will come and help you. You have to finish the entire course by yourself. Civil Service competition is like a marathon race. For that any competitive examination/even this whole world is a competitive world. The aspirants of civil services are well educated and more than 50 per cent of the candidates are serious ones. One, who has the confidence that he can compete in this examination and succeed, only will appear. UPSC statistics also reveals that around 50% of the total applicants only appear in the Preliminary exam.

Among the 50 per cent of the serious candidates, more than 20 per cent are hard workers, i.e. more than 50, 000 candidates are competing, who are really hard working. There are hardly 400 posts in all. So, to make it to the 400, one has to be really put in real hard work, good writing skills, unique style all put together. It is not a university examination. One who puts in extra hard work, practice, and unique presentation only will succeed i.e. be among the top 400. So all successful candidates say the hard work one of the first pre-requisites for the success.

There is no short cut to success and hard work never goes unrewarded. There are many ups and downs during the course of preparation. It is the "downs" which need to be tackled more vigorously and skillfully - more so at the emotional and psychological level. Remember these lines - "what you build for years, may be broken down in a single moment - build anyway".

DEDICATION:

Dedication towards your duty always pays in life. Be totally dedicated and focused in your studies. You have to sacrifice something like movies, parties, and entertainments etc at this stage of your life to achieve bigger things. Just work day in and day out and go on and on. As told in the previous topic, one should have dedication towards the goal otherwise it is very difficult to achieve. Select standard study books/preparation of notes, as reading is the only entertainment you should have during this period.

PATIENCE:

As the CSE preparation spans a minimum of one year, right from the Preliminary stage to the interview state, it requires a lot of patience to maintain your tempo. At times you may feel tired and sick of further studying during the course of your preparation. Maintain your cool and patience and so on to break the monotony of studies. Talk to friends and parents. They will provide with you with the much-needed emotional support. Every aspirant tries to top in the first attempt itself. If you don't get through, don't get frustrated. Don't slow down your tempo and at the same time you should keep patience for another year to reap the fruits of success. So one should not lose patience and the tempo throughout the preparation period till success.

SELF-CONFIDENCE:

Your self-confidence can make the difference. If you don't believe in yourself and your capacity to achieve then, no matter how hard you try. You will end up failing. So your self-confidence should be at an all time high - always. You should be in the company of people, who can increase your motivational levels high and can inspire you. Form a group of close friends, who are as determined as you are to make it to the Civil Services Examination. Keep good friends, they are always a source of inspiration and motivation.

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Current Public Administration Magazine (JANUARY 2021)


Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine


1. Accountability and Responsibility

  • How internet shutdowns damage democracy

Most of the activities that started as pen-paper exercises have now turned digital. From operations of small businesses to meetings, from food delivery to banking, there is some digital touch in everyone’s life. Who would have imagined, even two decades ago, that even media houses would be glued to Twitter accounts of Presidents for major announcements? I strongly believe that the element of digital has provided a platform to millions who feel more valued and more heard. I was surprised to discover that there is a term for the fear of being without a mobile device: nomophobia. There was even a joke doing rounds on social media as COVID-19 brought the world to a sudden halt: “Who brought the digital transformation in your organization?” The answer was not the CEO or the CTO but COVID-19. 

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2. Indian Government and Politics

  • Governing Delhi requires will to uphold Constitution — not alter it

On the face of it, the amendment to the National Capital Territory Act 1991 was introduced in Parliament to give effect to a July 2018 judgement of a 5-judge constitutional bench. While purporting to do so, the Bill has, in fact, planted several curbs on the functioning of the legislative assembly of Delhi as well as its council of ministers. The Supreme Court, without striking one single note of dissent or dissonance in a 536-page order, clause by clause, had clarified the difference between the constitutional arrangement designed for Delhi and that available for any other Union Territory.

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3. Social Administration

  • Lessons from Tagore for India’s post-pandemic education policy

As the COVID-19 pandemic refuses to die down, with a renewed resurgence causing devastation across the world, a global concerted effort where the technological advancement in the West has enabled the production of a vaccine to be utilised by the rest of the world, has once again highlighted the need for international cooperation. This, at a time when more and more nations were turning inwards. This inwardlooking policy making of nations does more harm than good. It has been forecast by some that the coronavirus might be a permanent reality. In this scenario, the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP) needs to be revised. 

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4. Current Topic

  • Make every drop of water count for sustainable agriculture

On World Water day (March 22) Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the “Catch the Rain” campaign under the government’s flagship programme, Jal Shakti Abhiyan. He emphasised the importance of using every penny spent under MGNREGA to conserve water. This is a laudable objective. But what is the state of our water resources? How can we ensure that everyone has access to safe drinking water, while industry and agriculture also get sufficient supplies to produce enough to meet the country’s demands? These issues demand close attention.

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5. Financial Administration

  • Why privatising public assets is poor economics, impetus to greater wealth inequality

The government has adduced no reasons for the proposed privatisation of several public sector assets other than to generate resources for its spending. Let us see what such a fiscal strategy involves. Nobody buys public sector assets by skimping on consumption. Nor does one buy such assets by skimping on investment: Current investment expenditure depends on decisions taken in the past and is more or less pre-determined. It is only investment decisions that are taken today for fructification tomorrow that may be scaled down by such a purchase; and if investment decisions taken today are scaled-down, then it is an authentic case of “crowding out” and such a strategy should be avoided anyway. 

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