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Public Administration Papers Topic : Development Dynamics


Public Administration Papers Topic : Development Dynamics


  • "The concept of development is multi - dimensional and ever - expanding." Explain. (20 marks 2010)
  • "People's participation is crucial to development  administration." Comment. (20 marks 2007)
  • "Development administration is starved for theories which will guide the pooling of empirical knowledge, orient new research, and recommend administrative policy." Explain. (20 marks 2005)
  • "In certain discourses, there is a reflected basic distrust against bureaucracy as an  instrument of development." Do you think bureaucracy is more appropriate for regulatory administration than for development administration ? In the changing profile of development administration in a liberalizing environment, what role of bureaucracy can I envisaged ?  (60 marks 2008)
  • Do you agree with the view that development administration has in recent years lost its impetus without making any significant intellectual breakthrough? Discuss. (60 marks 2006)
  • Indicate the milestones in the story of development from the Nehruvian Model to the liberalisation Model. (30 marks 2011)
  • "The market has become the new icon of developmentalism." Comment. (20 marks 2010)
  • Neither Edward Weidner nor Fred Riggs was able to describe the process of development administration adequately. Explain the drawbacks and weaknesses in their theoretical analyses. (30 marks 2011)
  • In organizational analysis, there is always gender around (Gouldner). Argue (10 marks 2013)
  • “For those who use the euphemism of ‘shared power’ for participation, the appropriate literature for guidance is practical politics and not organization and Management.” “Stronger state and strong civil society are the need to develop both participatory democracy and responsive government as mutually reinforcing and supportive.” Bring out the myths and realities associated with public participation. (20 marks 2013)
  • Economic reforms are a work in progress, with the state reluctant to fully relinquish its reins. Discussion of the statement with regard to the implementation of economic reforms in India . (15 marks 2013)
  • “The policy process was not structured in the way required by bureaucratic planning.” ”Arguably, instrumentalism now stands most in contrast to neo liberal nationality that impose market against both gradual change and democratic liberalism.” analyses these two statements. (20 marks 2013)
  • “The term Development Administration can be used only in a broad sense to mark the variety of approaches and points of view.” Discuss. (10 marks 2014)
  • “Self-Help Groups have not only empowered women, but have also brought about attitudinal change among all stakeholders towards women development.” Discuss. (15 marks 2014)
  • Show in what way the Gender and Development approach differs from the W oman and Development approach. (10 marks 2015)
  • “Self-Help Groups are considered as one of the most significant tools to adopt participatory approach for economic empowerment of women”. Comment. (10 marks 2016)
  • “The idea of development stands like a ruin in the intellectual landscape’ and “It is time to dismantle this mental structure”. (Wolfgang Sachs) In the light of the statement, Critically examine the anti- development thesis. (15 marks 2016)
  • “The problem is to achieve the right balance between a competitive market economy and an effective state: Markets where possible, the state where necessary.” Justify your answer. (15 marks 2016)
  • “Development Administration and Administrative Development have a chicken and egg kind of relationship”.-(Riggs) . Elaborate(10 marks 2017)
  • “Liberalization, Privatization and  Globalization  have transformed  the nature of development administration .” Discuss(20 marks 2017)
  • “Bureaucracy has inbuilt limitations to act as the prime catalyst to multi- faceted development in a democratic country”. Analyze this statement with appropriate examples(15 marks 2017)
  • "The issue of development of women is closely related to the issue of women in development." How can women become equal partners in the process of socio-economic development? (10 marks 2018)
  • "The process of administrative development is generally slower than the p economic development." How can the speed of administrative development be made faster ? (10 marks 2018)
  • In order to be development-oriented, bureaucracies need to be innovative, flexible, citizen- centric and result-oriented, but they are slow in imbibing these virtues in a democratic system. Do we need to go beyond the traditional models of bureaucracy and create alternative structures ? Elaborate. (20 marks 2018)
  • How does ethnocentrism impact development administration in achieving sustainable goals ? Argue with examples. (20 marks 2018)
  • Contractualism has become a favorite policy of the neoliberal forces, but now without its share of controversy. Argue. (10 Marks, 2019)
  • “Development dynamics is marked by a dilemma : the concept of development has a built-in participatory orientation but the practice of development has been inherently exclusionary.” Discuss. (20 Marks, 2019)
  • In a society marked by social inequity and gender inequality women self-help groups are bound to play a marginal role. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. (20 Marks, 2019)
  • "Markets, hierarchies and networks represent modem governing structures in government." Explain.(10 Marks, 2020)
  • Affirmative action in socio-economic development has not altogether eliminated discrimination. Discuss it in the context of women empowerment.(15 Marks, 2020)
  • "Collaboration and its cognates for public service delivery need to be viewed from the governance lenses." Comment. (15 Marks, 2020)

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(Getting Started) Minimize Negative Marking and Maximize Your UPSC CSE Prelims Score



(Getting Started) Minimize Negative Marking and Maximize Your UPSC CSE Prelims Score



Application For Civil Services Exam Should be Treated as an Attempt: UPSC  Tells Centre

Students Taking UPSC CSE Prelims0

As the UPSC Civil Services Examination Prelims are approaching, a lot of the aspirants are worried about their performance. Among preparation worries, the unpredictable nature of UPSC, along with the negative marking involved, also leads to anxiety in many. 

What is a good attempt? How much does one absolutely need to score to crack prelims? These are questions that worry the best students out there. In this article, we try to ease the pressure a bit on aspiring Civil Servants.

How Much Must You Score To Qualify?

Take a look at the upsc preliminary cutoffs for the past 5 years –

Category

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

General

98.00

98.00

105.34

116.00

107.34

EWS

90.00

-

-

-

-

SC

95.34

84.00

88.66

99.34

94

ST

82.00

83.34

88.66

96.00

91.34

OBC

77.34

96.66

102.66

110.66

106

PwD 1

53.34

73.34

85.34

75.34

90.66

PwD 2

44.66

53.34

61.34

72.66

76.66

PwD 3

61.34

40.00

40.00

40.00

40

PwD 5

61.34

45.34

-

-

-

Last 5 Years Cut-Off For UPSC CSE Preliminary Exams

As you will notice, the cut-off ranges from 95 to 115 (with a slight deviation in 2016). It is always best to consider the upper limit as no matter what, you do not want to fall behind. Thus, your target should always be scoring 120+. That is a safe score, and unless the paper set by UPSC is dead easy, which is improbable, you should be able to sail through to the mains exam with a 120+ score.

How Many Questions Should You Attempt?

Keep in mind that the preliminary exam is qualifying in nature. So, you only need to worry about crossing the 120 marks. Now, in order to do that, you need to understand your accuracy.

What is “accuracy”?

Your accuracy is the percentage of questions you answer correctly over the total number of questions attempted. In order to determine your accuracy, you must take at least 20+ mock tests during the last 90 days before your preliminary exams. The most accurate percentage will be calculated at the final stage of your prelims preparation, which will be the last 60-90 days before the prelims exam. Your scores in mock tests over the years will only help you reach this state through proper analysis.

Calculating Your Accuracy

Suppose, on an average, in a mock test, you attempt about 80 questions. And you usually end up with 65 correct answers. That puts your accuracy at roughly 81%. Thus, to score a 120, you must attempt around 75 questions. The process is further illustrated in the image below –

Once you have analysed your accuracy percentage, simply put it in this equation and find out your targeted attempts –

What Not To Do?

Here are a couple of things you should most definitely not do if you want to qualify –

  • Your accuracy will not drastically change on the day of the exam – stick to what you know. Do not give yourself undue credit or criticism.
  • Do not make uninformed guesses. Intelligent guesswork is a part of cracking the paper. But randomly marking answers just because of a gut feeling will most definitely be your downfall.
  • Do not force yourself to attempt any more than you have to. You might think it gives you a better chance at qualifying, however, all it will do is rack up your negative marks and drag down your score.
  • Do not panic. It is okay to fall short by 20-30 questions of your targeted attempts. That is where intelligent guesswork and option elimination comes to play. UPSC sets papers where an aspirant will not know more than 30-40 answers with 100% surity. The rest of it will be dependent on how cool you can stay in such a stressful situation, and use your logical reasoning to answer to the best of your abilities. That is the test they want you to take.

By keeping these few tricks and tips in mind, you should be able to clear your preliminary exam with flying colors and get further towards achieving your IAS dream.

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(Getting Started) Preparing for Economics Optional – Aishwarya Sheoran's Strategy (AIR 93)



(Getting Started) Preparing for Economics Optional – Aishwarya Sheoran's Strategy (AIR 93)



Aishwarya Sheoran’s story is what a may be a film story is made of. This Miss India 2016 finalist has taken the news cycle by storm by securing an all India rank of 93 in the UPSC Civil Services examination 2019. She is a graduate of economics and thus, chose Economics as her optional. With that, she secured a rank that has now cemented her to getting entry into the coveted Indian Administrative Services (IAS).

 

Meet Aishwarya Sheoran, Miss India Finalist Who Cracked Civil Services Exam

Aishwarya Sheoran, AIR 93, UPSC CSE 2019

Who Should Pick Up Economics?

Economics is a technical subject and one must have some inclination towards it before taking it up. If one is a student of economics then this is the best possible subject for them. Even if they are not, anyone who is willing to spend time understanding the nitty-gritty of the field and finds themselves intrigued with how economics works can pick it up. It is not hard; it just needs dedication.

Why Should One Pick Economics?

Economics is a very scoring subject. From the UPSC Civil Services examination perspective, it is also a major chunk of the General Studies Paper III syllabus. The syllabus for GS-III and the syllabus for Economics Optional overlap to a great extent. Not to mention portions of economics such as Agriculture and the Economic Survey are a major part of the General Studies as well as Preliminary syllabus. Economics is also very to the point and requires the use of crisp facts and figures. The sources are limited as it is a newer behavioral science and has not many established authors. Thus, it is much more manageable.

Economics Optional Paper I and Paper II:
What to Cover and How?

Paper-I is the more technical out of the two. It covers macro-economics, microeconomics, money, and finance, banking, and growth and development. It covers a lot of mathematical aspects of economics. An economic background helps in this paper. However, if you do not have a background, take your time when studying this paper.

Paper-II is mostly about Indian Economic History. It is related to GS-III. Aishwarya herself has studied this paper from her own graduation notes and the little that was left, she searched them up on the internet and made fresh notes. 

Topicwise Booklist and Other Sources

Here is Aishwarya’s topic-wise booklist – 

5 Books to Study Indian Economy (Economics) for IAS Prelims Exam

Economics Optional Paper-I

  • Micro Economics – H.L. Ahuja
  • Macro Economics – H.L. Ahuja, Froyen
  • Money and Finance – H.L. Ahuja
  • Public Finance – H.L Bhatia
  • International Economics – Salvatore
  • Growth and Development – Online Sources, H.L Ahuja
  • WTO, Environmental Economics – Online Sources

Economics Optional Paper-II

  • mrunal study notes
  • Aishwarya used her graduation notes; she suggests you take the books mentioned by other toppers

Do not ignore the Budget and the Economic survey.

Try and make notes from the budget speech directly to ensure you don’t miss details. This also helps in developing a better understanding. As for the Economic survey, it is usually a 2-part compilation with each part having around 500 pages. Aishwarya herself had reduced it to 4 pages of notes which she studied right before her interviews and could answer related questions on it.

How Much Time to Give to Economics as an Optional?

Aishwarya has given it 3 months – August, September, and October 2018. She made notes during this time and kept revising these notes regularly. It is best to complete the optional before the preliminary examination as there is not much time between preliminary and mains exams. She used to spend roughly 5 hours every day during this time for her optional. But she never stopped her General Studies preparation. Even when she was wholly concentrated on her optional, she still kept studying her current affairs related to General Studies for 2 to 3 hours every day.

Answer Writing Practice

Aishwarya joined a test series in Delhi. She had taken 14 to 15 tests for optional. It helped her ensure she was finishing her papers on time and also to better the quality of her writing. Aishwarya suggests starting with the compulsory questions. In there, she started with 20 markers and then complete 15 markers. But she advises you to do what works for you.

For Economics, keywords are very important. Examiners mark these points first and then evaluate the rest of the answer. Aishwarya recommends picking these keywords from the Economic Survey Report, the Budget Speech, and the NITI Aayog’s ‘India at 75’ report. The goal is to complete your optional on time, and that in itself is half the battle won.

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Comparative Public Administration


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Comparative Public Administration


  • "No science of public administration is possible unless.... there is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar historical experiences." Discuss. (20 marks 2005)
  • "Not to be comparative is to be naively parochial" (Riggs). Comment. (20 marks 2007)
  • " ... non - western states often, if not always, have unbalanced politics, but these may not necessarily be bureaucratic politics." Discuss.     (20 marks 2009)
  • "Truly comparative administrative studies are empirical, nomothetic and ecological." (Riggs) In this perspective, examine the current status of Comparative Public Administration. (20 marks 2008)
  • Explain the meaning, significance and Models of Comparative Public Administration. (60 marks 2004)
  • "The Prismatic model of Riggs is equally applicable to developing as well as developed society." Comment. (20 marks 2010)
  • Which of the model(s) in development administration is/are characterised by 'Selectivism', 'Attainment' and 'Poly- functionalism'? Describe the corresponding theoretical roots and attributes. (30 marks 2009)
  • Comment on the reasons why universal theory remains elusive in comparative public administration. (20 marks 2012)
  • 'Rigg's classification of societies into fused, prismatic, and diffracted is built around the concept of differentiation.' Analyze. (15 marks 2012)
  • Comparative Public Administration both resembles and differs from modern organization theory. Elaborate (10 marks 2013)
  • What is Administrative elitism? How does it evolve in Public Administration? elaborate your response with reference to historical examples(10 marks 2013)
  • “….in most cases….newly independent states, of the nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America, despite their differences…are in transition.” (Ferrel Heady). What common features are indicative of characteristics of their Administrative patterns (cultures)? (15 marks 2013)
  • Critically examine the Riggsian concept of differentiation in the context of the post-globalization era. (10 marks 2014)
  • How does Ferrel Heady rationalize the three stages of development in comparative administration? (20 marks 2015)
  • “Riggs observed that three ‘trends’ Could be discerned in the comparative study of Public Administration.” Discuss. (10 marks 2016)
  • “The Riggsian models of Fusion –Prismatic-Diffracted Societies and their administrative systems have been inspired by Max Weber’s typology of Traditional Charismatic  Legal-Rational Authorities .” Analyze (20 marks 2017)
  • "Administrative systems across the world can be understood only in their respective historical and social contexts." Explain the statement giving examples. (20 marks 2018)
  • The failure to discard its elitist character and west-centric orientation has led to the decline of Comparative Public Administration. Explain. (10 Marks 2019)
  • "Comparative Public Administration started with no paradigm of its own and developed nane" Comment (10 Marks 2020)
  • "Administrative ideas must be seen in the context of environment in which they develop." In the light of the above statement, examine the influence of New Public Management and Information and Communication Technologies on comparative study of Public Administration.(20 Marks 2020)
     

 

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उत्तर प्रदेश राज्य GK प्रश्न (सेट -29) for UPPSC Exam

उत्तर प्रदेश राज्य GK प्रश्न (सेट -29) for UPPSC Exam

1. उत्तर प्रदेश में गोखलु बेराजै का निर्माण कब प्रारम्भ किया गया था ?

a. दिसंबर , 1990
b. जनवरी , 1992
c. अक्टूबर , 1990
d. सितम्बर 1991

2. उत्तर प्रदेश की सबसे लम्बी नहर कौन-सी है ?

a. ऊपरी गंगा नहर
b. शारदा नहर
c. आगरा नहर
d. निचली गंगा नहर

3. उत्तर प्रदेश में रानी लक्ष्मी बाई बाँध प्रयोजनकिनदी पर है ?

a. रामगंगा
b. भागीरथी
c. बेतवा
d. घघरा

4. उत्तर प्रदेश के किस्थान की सिचाई हेतु देवकली पम्प नहर परियोजना का कार्य प्रारम्भ किया गया ?

a. गाजीपुर
b. आगरा
c. मेरठ
d. वाराणसी

5. उत्तर प्रदेश में शारदा नहर प्रणाली का निर्माण कार्य किस वर्ष किया गया

a. 1925
b. 1930
c. 1928
d. 1940

उत्तर प्रदेश PSC (Preliminary) Exam (GS Paper-1) स्टडी किट

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Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 57

Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 57

  Passage : Instruction for question- read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Your answers to the questions should be based on the passage only.

           The Naxal dominated districts in India also hold the same distinction they not only have some of the worst human development as well as economy indicators in India but equally that the communities living there have been victims of injustice (Anayaya), as Amartya Sen would say, Some thing deeper and broader than niti & law. This has been the underlay for the armed conflict. The views of women, active in both the theoretical and practical processes of peacemaking, suggest the need to move beyond simply incorporating a ‘women’s perspective’ or claiming that their societal roles give them generic values in peace building. The argument of this paper is that it is only through building economically just and politically democratic system that enduring peace can be put on the ground, and that women’s particular experience of injustice, their reconstruction of economic reasoning, as well as their special location and experience in grass roots and community oriented wake, gives them both the intellectual and practical skills for building those peaceful spaces. In that sense Gandhi’s thought was that ‘the women of India should have as much share in wining swaraj as men. Probably in this peaceful struggle women can outride man by many a mile, is sophisticated and appropriate, for that she first posits equality of presence and then the firmness of women can outdistance men.

1. According to passage which is correct about armed conflict?

1. The affected communities have been subjected to injustice.
2. The affected communities have been brought under a broader law.

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

2. According to passage which is correct about armed conflict?

1. The affected communities have suffered injustice despite being under the protection of law
2. The affected communities live in the least developed areas of the country.

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

3. Choose the correct statement.

1. Women have key strengths that help build lasting peace.
2. The bedrock of enduring peace in and economically just and politically democratic system

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the author.

(a) is arguing for a more active role for women in the peace building process.
(b) is arguing for the recognition of past achievements by women in the peace building process
(c) is arguing that women have a greater ability than men have in the process of peace building
(d) is arguing for the active participation of all minority groups in the peace building process.

5. Consider the following statements;

1. The Naxal dominated districts in India also have the worst human development
2. They are victims of Anaya, injustice.

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

Passage : Instruction for question- read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. Your answers to the questions should be based on the passage only.

In a sense, 2012 has the potential to be call important milestone; As of January, it has been more than 12 months since India recorded its last case of poliomyelitis. If 2012 passes without this record being disturbed, India and the rest of the world would have made significant progress toward eradicating only the second human disease ever. As with small pox, the primary tool that is being employed is a highly effective Vaccine. It is because of their tremendous public value that the famous economist Jeffrey sachs once
called vaccines and other similar health interventions ‘weapons of mass salvation’. This potentially defining advancement in the battle against polio comes, coincidentally, at a moment
of reckoning for vaccines and immunization. In May 2011, ‘the decade of vaccines collaboration’ was lunched at the World Health Assembly. With a Variety of stakeholders- ranging from United Nations agency to multilateral bodies, national governments to philanthropic institutions- this efforts hopes to maximize the power and potential of vaccines over the next decade, and expect full benefits of immunization to everyone.

6. According to passage.

1. As of January 2011, it has been more than 12 months since India recorded its last case of poliomyelitis.
2. India can dramatically impact global immunization efforts this year.

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

7. According to passage.

1. The success in the battle against polio coincides with a moment of reckoning of vaccines and immunization
2. India has the largest number of immunized children in the world

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

8. The author considers 2012 to ‘ have the potential to be an important milestone’ because.

1. The year has been labeled as the ‘ year of intensification of routine immunization.
2. If no cases of poliomyelitis are recorded this year then significant progress will be achieved in eradicating the diseases.

Choose the correct option using codes

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2

9. The year ‘2011’ was declared as

(a) Decade of polio vaccines
(b) Decade of vaccines
(c) Decade of small pox vaccines
(d) Decade of TB vaccines

10. India recorded its last polio case in

(a) 2012
(b) 2010
(c) 2011
(d) 2009

Answer:

1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (a) 4 (d) 5 (d) 6 (c) 7 (a) 8 (b) 9 (d) 10 (b)

CSAT Paper-2 Study Material for UPSC Prelims Exam

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(Getting Started) Effectively Read Newspaper for UPSC in 60 Minutes



(Getting Started) Effectively Read Newspaper for UPSC in 60 Minutes



The importance of reading the daily newspaper for your UPSC Civil Services Examination preparation cannot be stressed enough. Successful aspirants have time and again stressed how being updated in-depth with the current affairs has allowed them to score good marks. However, aspirants still face a lot of problems trying to decipher 30-35 pages of news each day. Allotting 2 to 3 hours just for reading the newspaper when there is so much more to cover every day seems wasteful. In this article, we try to decipher how one can achieve similar expertise in current news by spending an hour a day only.

 

The Don’ts

First thing first – know what not to read. Out of the massive 30 pages of news in the paper, hardly 2-3 pages of combined content is what you need for UPSC. So, what should you avoid?

Newspaper Front Page

The front page is only useful in terms of headlines each day. Read all headlines. Now it is time to pick and choose. Almost all articles will be further linked to detailed articles in the inner pages. 

Avoid headlines on the following :

  • Election wins and loses.
  • Press Conferences by Political Parties.
  • News about Sports Events.
  • News related to the Entertainment business.
  • Share market or business profits.
  • Regional news with no national impact.

Inner Pages

Avoid the state news pages. As this differs from state to state, UPSC does not expect you to be updated about different news that made it to these pages in different regions of the country. So you can skip over these pages.

For international events, usually, these are news items that get dragged over months. There is no point in updating yourself on the daily. Instead, check them up weekly or even monthly in a Current Affairs Compilation booklet. That would give you enough details.

You can skip over the business pages sections where there is detailed mention fo the share markets, company shares, profits of private concerns, or salaries of CEOs. Only follow business news relevant to government revenue or expenditure. Such articles appear a few times a year at best.

Similarly, just avoid sports-related pages. Anything of National importance will be most definitely covered in enough details in Current Affairs Monthly Compilations.

We shouldn’t need to tell you that you need to avoid entertainment news like a plague. Also, in Editorial pages, ignore the reader entires and only read columns by noted journalists or specialists.

The Do’s

Now that you know what to avoid, let us look at what you must follow.

Choose News Based on Keywords

Some topics are mentioned for each subject in the UPSC Civil Services Examination syllabus. Ensure that if any of these topics are mentioned in a news item, you give that news item its deserved importance. For example, if the words “demographic dividend”, “poverty”, “judicial review”, etc. are mentioned, the article is important for GS-II Polity. Similarly, if the words “biodiversity”, “hot spot”, “IUCN”, etc. are mentioned, the article is important for GS-III Environment portion. Choose Editorials you have to read based on these keywords too.

National News

Do not skip the national news pages. Read the policies, decisions, etc. carefully. Skip the political drama. Inter-state dynamics are important as well. 

Science and Technology

This section of the UPSC syllabus is majorly covered in current affairs. Any technological advance whether related to the private or the government sector should be given importance. Do not skip this portion. For major newspapers like the Hindu, there is a page every week that covers that week’s Science and Tech news. Follow it diligently.

Other than that, in the business section, any news related to RBI, SEBI, IRDS, and other such government regulators has to be followed. Also, follow any humanitarian activities on a national or international scale where India is an active participant.

By following these simple rules, anyone should be able to read their daily news from the papers in roughly an hour. Make notes of only keywords, names, places, and dates and take advantage of monthly news compilations. 

You will make your UPSC journey a lot less stressful this way.

Best of Luck.

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Administrative Law


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Administrative Law


  • "Delegated legislation is a necessary evil." Examine. (20 marks 2007) 
  • Delegated legislation is not absolute. Explain. (20 marks 2004)
  • "Today the content of administrative law is driven primarily by the scope of public administrative activity." Explain. (60 marks 2006)
  • "Today the content of administrative law is driven primarily by the scope of public administration activity." Explain. (60 marks 2005)
  • Do you think that there is an unresolved and often overlooked tension in Dicey's concept of rule of law, considering that the other principle of parliamentary sovereignty in English constitutional system runs counter to it ? (20 marks 2012)
  • Make a critical assessment of Dicey's understanding of the Rule of law and Droit Administratif. (15 marks 2011)
  • Make out a case for Delegated legislation. (15 marks 2011)
  • Would you agree that the strong Rechsstaat version of the rule of law found on the Continent never existed in England because of its particular history ? (20 marks 2012)
  • Why is Ie droit administratif regarded alongside the Napoleonic Code as the most notable achievement of French legal science ? (20 marks 2012)
  • Discuss the views that “tribunals should have the same degree of independence from the Executive as that enjoyed by the supreme court and high courts, especially for those tribunals that look over the functions of high courts. (10 marks 2013)
  • “The conceptual division between administrative and constitutional law is quite porous, and that along many dimensions, administrative law can be considered more constitutional in character than the constitutions.” How would you justify the statement? (10 marks, 2014)
  • “Delegated Legislation is a necessary evil.” Comment. (10 marks, 2015)
  • “Legislative action is not subject to the rules of natural justice.” Explain the exceptions to the rule of natural justice. (15 marks, 2015)
  • “The central concern of Administrative Law has been the legal limitation of administrative discretion.” Give reasons. . (15 marks, 2016)
  • “Administrative Law is recognized by its substance rather than its form .” Discuss(10 marks, 2017)
  • The principle of delegated legislation is, I think right, but I was emphasise that it is well for Parliament to keep a watchful and even zealous eye on it at all stages “- (Herbert Morrison ) Analyze. (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The Journey of Administrative Law has moved much beyond A. V. Dicey.” Comment. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “Delegated legislation has become a strategic tool in the hands of the executive despite its utility.” Comment. (10 Marks,2019) 
  • “Red light and Green light theories provide contrasting approaches to the role of administrative law.” Which of the two theories will be effective in achieving the objectives of administration law? Justify your choice. (15 Marks,2019) 
  • "Arbitrariness in the application of rule of law is a primary cause of poor governance." Discuss.(10 Marks,2020) 
  • "Developments in the field of Administrative Law reflect an increasingly blurred boundary between the state and society, and between justice and administration." Has administrative law become more constitutional than the Constitution itself? Argue (20 Marks,2020)

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Accountability and Control


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Accountability and Control


  • “Autonomy and Accountability in Public Enterprises cannot walk together” . Explain. (20 marks 2006)
  • Should media exposure be included in rules for administrative accountability in India ? State your views. (15 marks 2012)
  • ‘Media is a Parliament of citizen’s.Explain. (20 marks 2011)’
  • “Instruments of public accountability can be truly effective only if the people and their associations, backed by a responsible media, are assertively pro-active.” Comment (20 marks 2008)
  • Comment on the role of Civil Society in facilitating administrative accountability with special reference to the 'Jan lokpal' issue in India.  (15 marks 2012)
  • Define the term 'civil society'. How does civil society influence public policy? . (60 marks 2006)
  • Explain the basic principles underlying Citizen's Charter with special reference to  (60 marks 2010)

(a) its administrative philosophy.
(b) promoting public accountability.
(c) ensuring standards of public-service.

  • "Right to information promotes transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority." Explain. (60 marks 2007)
  • 'Open access to government records is ... the hallmark of a democratic government', but 'governments are not hesitant about destroying records - very deliberately - in order to prevent investigations, as well as to generally weaken accountability'. Do you think that in this situation right to information can go to the extent of demanding complete declassification and 'de - archivization' of government records? Argue.  (30 marks 2012)
  • “Governance theory and the notion of governmentality have many points of convergence, but they run on parallel lines.” Comment.(20 marks, 2014)
  • “The Right of Informal of not all about citizens’ empowerment, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability.” Discuss. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “Voluntary organizations have become tools of sensitization of governmental agencies.” Comment. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “Right from the days of the ‘Peoples’ Charter’ to the new concept of `Precariat Charter’, the concept of Citizen’s Charter and its scope is constantly evolving.” Comment. .(20 marks, 2015)
  • How far do you agree with the view that the growing influence of media comes in the way of agenda-setting by the Government? (15 marks, 2015)
  • “In spite of certain advantages, Social Audit arrangements have mostly been ineffective because there is no legal provision for punitive action.” (10 marks, 2016)
  • “The legislative control over administration is not as effective as it ought to be”.Comment.(15 marks, 2016)
  • “Civil Society performs a key role in defending people against the state and market and in asserting the democratic will to influence the State”. Analyze the statement with suitable.(15 marks, 2016)
  • Civil Society supplements and complements the State. However, its capacity and role depend upon the will of the State. Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • When the media is controlled by vested interests, how can it control the vested interests in the government? How can the media become more responsible and impartial ? (15 marks, 2017)
  • Can it be said that statutory audit and social audit are two sides of the same coin? Or, are they separate coins with varying values? (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The political approach to Public Administration stresses on the values of representativeness, political responsiveness and accountability through elected officials to the citizenry" (David H. Rosembloom). Comment. (15 marks, 2018)
  • Edward Gibbon, the author of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire remarked : "Corruption, the most infallible symptom of Constitutional liberty." Critically examine this statement. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “Media the Fourth estate is in chains.” Examine the statement in the context of governmental accountability. (15 Marks ,2019)

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(Getting Started) What Not to Do - Advice by AIR 148 Sunny Gupta



(Getting Started) What Not to Do - Advice by AIR 148 Sunny Gupta



Like many other Indians, Sunny Gupta has always had the zeal for public service. However, he lacked the proper information and guidance. While working for HCL technologies, he was gradually introduced to the world of UPSC Civil Services. That’s when he found out that this was the path to realizing his dream. His determination was fanned by him successfully clearing the prelims examinations in his very first attempt. He refused to give up and having exhausted all six attempts, he stands tall with AIR 148 in UPSC CSE 2019. 

Struggles

Sunny has also cleared Kashmir Administration Services. In fact, it served as a source of confidence when despite attending interviews he was still being unable to crack the exam. In his 5th attempt, he secured IRTS services where he is currently undergoing training. He now awaits his new service call. Working under an IAS officer over the past 2-3 years, Sunny found himself even more motivated to land this service.

Sunny appeared for his preliminary and mains examinations while still working as a Tehsildar in Kashmir Administrative Services. There were challenges to holding a full-time gazetted position while appearing for an exam that is as demanding as UPSC Civil Services, but he managed it. It was less difficult while attending his interviews while undertaking training for his IRTS service as the interview preparation according to him take roughly 3 to 4 hours of one’s day.

Do’s and Don’ts

Do Not Treat Prelims and Mains Separately

Sunny says given the pattern of the preliminary examination these days, do not make the mistake of thinking you can prepare separately for prelims and mains. UPSC Preliminary questions are no longer just factual or direct; they are in fact very analytical in nature and require as in-depth an understanding as it would take to answer a mains question. Stick to the standard textbooks and study current affairs thoroughly. Connecting each current news article to the related static information is required if one is to clear UPSC CSE prelims today.

Do Not Leave Answer Writing To The End

Writing answers is key to clearing the mains examination. It has to be a year-long process and cannot be achieved in a few months. Writing every day, having the right structure and pace is crucial to finishing the paper in time and writing quality answers that fetch good marks. Do not leave writing answers until you are done with your revisions. Work simultaneously on both; that is the only way to succeed.

16 from Jammu and Kashmir among successful UPSC candidates -  watsupptoday.com

16 Candidates from Jammu & Kashmir cleared UPSC CSE, 2019

Do Not Make Detailed Notes

Notes making is essential. Knowing how to make crisp and concise notes is equally important. The last one month before either prelims or mains exams should be about revising the whole upsc syllabus without missing out on a single topic. How does one revise a syllabus that took years to complete in just 4 weeks? Not from textbooks, not from a compilation, and definitely not from bulk and detailed notes. Do not try to reread, that is not what revising is all about. Instead, think of your notes as cue cards meant to guide you towards information your mind has already stored. Make crisp and short notes, keep revising them as many times as you can.

Do Not Try to Act Differently in Interviews

Interviews are a test of your personality. Do not try to fake aspects of your personality or present qualities that you don’t originally possess. Dishonesty is not ethical and thus not appreciated by interview boards. Instead, revise all that you have studies to make it through to the interviews. Learn more about the aspects you have mentioned in your upsc DAF. And try to be humble and answer best to your abilities, while remaining completely professional and honest about your strengths and weaknesses. You should come off with flying colors.

Do Not Try to Study Everything

Don’t study everything. Its not a doctorate program. Study limited sources and keep revising so much that when you write, you do not need to think hard to recall the information. Revising and retaining the little you study is more important than studying a vast amount of information. Keep revising and writing answers. That is the only way to succeed in UPSC Civil Services.

Message to Aspirants

Sunny Gupta’s Interview

Do not give up. Instead, analyze your shortcomings and reform them. There is no failure in UPSC, it is just a part of your whole journey. Do not let the pressure get to you. With a cool head, keep trying till you can. Failure is not the end.

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(Getting Started) UPSC Preparation Do's and Don'ts for Working Professionals



(Getting Started) UPSC Preparation Do's and Don'ts for Working Professionals



A lot of very successful UPSC toppers have cracked this exam while working a full-time job. Many continue to do so either due to financial restraints or due to the uncertainty associated with the Civil Services Examination. It is a myth that one cannot crack UPSC Civil Services while working. If anything, the UPSC interview panel regards those with a full-time job with high regard and even admires them for their dedication and time management skills. However, given the nature of this competitive exams, here are the top 7 do’s and don’ts working aspirants should keep in mind.

 

Burning the midnight oil (Picture Courtesy: Freepik)

 

  Stretch Out Your Preparation

The ideal time an aspirant is expected to give to UPSC is 12 to 18 months. But this is for a candidate who can spend 10+ hours a day for their preparation. When you work 8 hours a day for 5 or 6 days a week, along with some travel time, that is just not possible. The most a working candidate can give their preparation is about 4 hours on working days and maybe 8 to 10 hours on their day off. Because of this, the recommended period for a full-time working candidate is 24 to 36 months at the least. Depending on what you are comfortable with, this may stretch to 48 months as well. Do not panic. Remember, as someone with a full-time career, you also do not have the stress of ruining your professional options with a failure. So do not fret, take your time, and nail it!

Limit Your Resources

Remember, as a working candidate, you are already short of time. The UPSC syllabus is an endless abyss, and unless you are careful, you will get lost in it. Choose no more than one main source for each topic.  You can always research a little more over either the internet or a reference book. However, you should not spend too much time doing so. Stick to one newspaper like the Hindu and one current affairs monthly compilation. That will most definitely be enough for you to cover all bases.

Make Notes and Keep Revising

Multiple revisions are key to succeeding in the Civil Services Examination. A working professional does not have the luxury of reading through the same elaborate material over and over again. So, at the very first go, make crisp, short notes for each topic. Every time you need to revise a topic, just reach out for your notes. This will not only save you the time and effort that can be better utilized studying something new, but it will also help you have a grasp of the topic better than most other aspirants.

Making notes is absolutely essential (Picture Courtesy: Freepik)

Target Writing 3 to 4 Answers A Week

Answer Writing is crucial to securing a good rank in UPSC CSE. Unlike full-time aspirants, a working professional has to make a trade-off here and cannot possibly choose to write answers every day. However, by setting weekly targets, you ensure that you get enough practice and keep improving yourself gradually. The same goes for practicing Essay writing. Target 3 to 4 essays a month to ensure you ace that paper.

Don’t Neglect Your Optional

Keep a day dedicated to studying and practicing writing for your choice of optional. It carries a total of 500 marks and needs your full attention. Target completing your optional syllabus in 9 to 12 months. This way, by the time you sit for your Civil Services Examination, you will have an in-depth knowledge of your optional subject and that is exactly what UPSC requires.

Join a Test Series

If you are starting with a 24 months target, it is advisable to join a test series for both Prelims and Mains 6 to 9 months into your preparation. A test series allows you to analyze your strengths and weaknesses, understand where you stand with respect to the competition, and improve yourself so that you come out on top when you finally sit for UPSC CSE. For working professionals, this is extremely important to keep you motivated and help you not give up on your goals.

Finally, Save as Much Time as You Can

You need to conserve time and energy. A human being cannot keep overworking themselves for years and be in good enough mental and physical health to function at their best. Stay near your workplace to limit commute time, cook your week’s food requirement over the weekend or hire a tiffin service, limit social media presence, and decrease socializing considerably. These are minor sacrifices compared to the reward in the end.

At the end of the day, it is your name that will be on top of the merit list. Do what you must to get there. The destination is worth the difficult journey you will take.

Best of Luck.

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Organizations


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Organizations


  • ‘The essence of the contingency theory paradigm is that organizational effectiveness results from fitting characteristics of the organization, such as its structure, to contingencies that reflect the situation of the organization.'Give your reactions to this statement’. (20 marks 2012)
  • In the light of your discussion on 3(b) (i) above, also show where and how this 'fitting' differs essentially from the 'coping' with 'stress' from the environment emphasized by the systems theory of organization. (20 marks 2012)
  • "There is no doubt the departmentalisation is fraught with complexities. These are in part technical, in part political." Discuss. (20 marks 2009)
  • "To claim that a company or a corporation form is always more effective than a departmental form of organization is an outdated view. The real test of a sound structure is its capacity to balance decisional autonomy and operational flexibility with optimal accountability." Critically examine this statement. (60 marks 2008)
  • Explain the impact of privatisation on public administration with special reference to (60 marks 2010) (a) the issue of user fees. (b) public - private partnership. (c) outsourcing technique.
  • "The distinction between line and staff relative rather than absolute." Discuss.   (20 marks 2007)
  • “To talk about the regulatory framework is to talk about short governance.” Analyze the statement in the context of public private partnership and identify the elements of regulation.(15 marks, 2013)
  • “Delegation to independent agencies has taken place in an interdependent process driven by emulation.” Discuss in the context of independent regulatory agencies in the modern regulatory State. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “PPPs serve too many parties and too many interests … to be focussed.” Identify in the context of the statement, the parties involved in Public-Private Partnerships and their conflicting aims. (15  marks, 2015)
  • “The autonomy of Public Corporations raised a great debate about their internal working and external relation with the Ministers and the Parliament.”(10 marks, 2016)
  • “If the Regulatory Commissions…..are wholly independent, they are completely irresponsible for the doing of very important policy determining and Administrative work ….. on the other hand, to rob the commissions of their independence is seriously to menace the impartial performance of their judicial work.” (Cushman) Examine. (20 marks, 2016)
  • ”Systems Theory” in essence  is not a theory , but an approach to the study of administrative phenomena .” Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • Discuss the essential characteristics of public sector-centred and market-centred perspectives in Public Private Partnerships and also compare the two. (15 marks, 2018)
  • "An effective Management Information System (MIS) is the key to successful headquarter-field relationships."Comment. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “Form of an organisation influences the success of a public enterprise, but the choice of a form has always remained problematic." Discuss the statement in the context of the comparative merits and limitations of departments, corporations, companies and boards. Give illustrations. (20 marks, 2018)
  • “The advent of the regulatory regimes indicates the demise of the arbitrator state.” Comment. (15 Marks ,2019)
  • Contingency theory of organization is founded on the interplay of ‘external fit’ and ‘internal fit’. Discuss. (20 Marks,2019)
  • Departments, Boards and Commissions as forms of organization are dissimilar in the context of accountability and responsibility." Analyse. (10 Marks,2020)

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Public Administration Papers Topic : Administrative Behaviour


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Administrative Behaviour


  • Examine the respective roles of facts and values in the decision - making process. Is it possible to make value- free decisions in the government system ? How can government decisions be made more rational? (60 marks 2008)
  • What is meant by morale ? There is a belief that "moral and productivity go hand in hand and higher the morale, higher the productivity." Do you agree ? Substantiate. (60 marks 2007)
  • 'Man's motives ... in different subparts of the same organization may be different' [Edgar Schein]. Discuss. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Motivation theory is not synonymous with behaviour theory. The motivations are only one class of determinants of behaviour while behaviour is almost always motivated, it is also almost always biologically, culturally and situationally determined as well." Comment. (20 marks 2004)
  • Leadership is the' influential increment over and above    mechanical compliance with the routine directives of the organization' [Katz and Kahn]. Analyze. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Leaders do the right things, managers do them rightly." (Bennis) Comment. (20 marks 2008)
  • Read the following instances carefully and suggest what specific perspectives on organizational psychology of motivation would help the concerned organization to reconcile the needs of the following four persons with the needs of organization: (30 marks, 2013)
  • Mr.A comes to his office with clocklike punctuality; does his work with impeccable honesty and integrity; takes orders from above gladly; responds well to overtures by peers; but neither mixes with anyone himself nor seeks anyone’s company. What is more, he seems quite happy in his isolation.
  • Mr.B is an efficient charge hand at the welding shop. He is very outgoing and makes friends fast, but falls out with them very fast too. He is, however, easily pacified when anyone asks him to calm down in the name of the organization.
  • Mr.C is completely happy and absorbed when he is teaching in the classes, and doesn’t at all mind when his workload gets heavier and covers new areas. But he gets angry when the finance section raises objection about his medical bills; and is furious that the higher administration is yet to give him full tenure.
  • Mr.D is a metallurgist in the forge shop of the steel plan, and has received honors for his innovativeness in modifying conventional alloys. He also paints well and values his painting skills far more than his metallurgy and is extremely unhappy that company house journal did not finally carry his water sketch on its front cover.
  • “Karl Marx’s interpretation of bureaucracy was rooted in the history of the nature of the State.” Evaluate. (10 marks, 2014)
  • Is Peter Drucker justified in saying, “Management principles should not tell us what to do, but only tell us what not to do”? Comment. (10 marks, 2014)
  • How does the Strategic Contingencies Theory of organizational design deal with problems arising from sub-unit centrality and non-substitutability? (15 marks, 2014)
  • According to McGregor, “True professional help is not in playing God with the client, but in placing professional knowledge and skill at the client’s disposal”. In the light of the above, justify how theory Y is indicative and not prescriptive. (20 marks, 2014)
  • Do you agree with the view that the charismatic approach of the mid-1970s is a “new version” of the Classical Trait Theory of Leadership? Give reasons. (10 marks, 2015)
  • “Information constitutes the life-blood of the functioning of an organisation.” Explain the utility and significance of communication in decision-making.  (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Morale can drive an organization forward or can lead to employees” discontent, poor job performance and absenteeism”. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in an organization.” Examine. (20 marks, 2016)
  • ”Blake and Mouton defined leadership styles based on two dimensions-concern for people and concern for production.” In the light of statement, discuss the Managerial Grid Model. Explain with reason which one of the styles is the best. (20 marks, 2016)
  • “Leaders do the right things; managers do them rightfully” –(Warren Bennis). Is this distinction by him valid ? Explain (10 marks, 2017)
  • “Abraham Maslow’s ‘ Hierarchy of Needs’ and  Frederick Herzberg’s “Two Factor Theory” have commonalities in the analysis  of human motivation .” Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • The Participative Management  School of Argyris and Likert advocates democracy within the administrative system.Will this approach  be equally useful to developing countries with evolving  democracies?  (20 marks, 2017)
  • "A leader is a people's developer" (Napoleon). Which aspects of subordinates' development can be positively influenced by a leader ? Discuss. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “Herbert Simon's book Administrative Behavior presents a synthesis of the classical and behavioural approaches to the study of Public Administration." Explain. (10 marks, 2018)
  • Communication represents the “Nerves of Government" (Karl Deutsch). How can the communication system in the government be made more effective, responsive and motivational ? (20 marks, 2018)
  • "Chester Barnard's model of 'Contribution-Satisfaction Equilibrium' is still considered a logical model of organisational motivation." Do you agree? Give arguments. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “If there is ever to be a science of Public Administration it must derive from an understanding of man’s behavior”. Explain. (10 Marks,2019)
  • “Chester Barnard in ‘The Function of the Executive’ injected ‘the social’ in the study of organization. Explain in this context how the executive is expected to play a much greater role than a manager.” (10 Marks,2019) 
  • Performance information use is a form of organizational behaviour that is influenced by individual job, organizational and environmental factors." Critically analyse.(20 Marks,2020)

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(Article) ANALYSIS OF UPSC 2019 EXAM FINAL RESULT CUT OFF



(Article) ANALYSIS OF UPSC 2019 EXAM FINAL RESULT CUT OFF



Context : 

Recently, the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has declared the final result of the Civil Services Examination 2019. The number of total qualified candidates is 829 including the prestigious services of IAS, IPS & IFS, IRS among others.

Key details :

  • A total of 829 candidates are recommended for Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and Indian Police Service (IPS), among other civil services.
  • Mr. Pradeep Singh secured the first rank while Mr. Jatin Kishore and Ms. Pratibha Verma secured the second and third ranks respectively in the UPSC Toppers list.

Break up of 829 candidates category wise are as under :

General

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

TOTAL

304

78

251

129

67

829


 

  • Out of 829 qualified candidates, 304 are from the General category, 78 from Economically Weaker Section (EWS), 251 from Other Backward Classes (OBC), 129 from Scheduled Castes (SC) and 67 from Scheduled Tribes (ST) categories.
  • The prestigious civil services examination is conducted every year in three phases i.e. preliminary, mains, and interview.

Reserve list :

  • A total of 182 candidates has been put under the reserve list.
  • A consolidated Reserve List of candidates along with the list of recommended candidates is maintained by the UPSC. 
  • This reserve list serves the purpose of the supplementary list which comes after the first main list. Both lists are based on the number of vacancies sanctioned in a particular year.

General

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

TOTAL

91

09

71

08

03

182

Significance of UPSC Cut Off score :

  • The minimum qualifying standards/marks secured by the last recommended candidate in various categories at various stages issued by the UPSC are as under:- 

Exams

GEN

EWS

OBC

SC

ST

PwBD-1

PwBD-2

PwBD-3

PwBD-5

Pre 2019

98

90

95.34

82

77.34

53.34

44.66

40.66

61.34

Mains 2019

751

696

718

706

699

663

698

374

561

Final 2019

961

909

925

898

893

861

890

653

708


UPSC CSE Prelims Exam 2019 :

UPSC had conducted the IAS Prelims examination on 02nd June 2019 (Sunday) across the country. There were 2 compulsory papers i.e. General Ability Test (GAT) and the Civil Service Aptitude Test (CSAT) of 200 marks each, out of which CSAT is of qualifying nature.

UPSC CSE Mains Exam 2019 :

Those candidates qualified in prelims exams have been invited for the CSE Mains exams conducted in September 2019.

UPSC Civil Service Personality Test (Interview):

UPSC CSE Interview was conducted in February-July 2020. A total of 2304 candidates were invited to appear for the interview round.

EWS quota cut off lower than OBC category :

  • EWS quota was introduced for the first time in the 2019 exam. 
  • The Final cutoff list released by UPSC shows that the EWS category cutoff is lower than the OBC, SC, and ST at different stages of the exams.
  • For instance,
  •  In Pre-exam 2019: EWS cut off is 90 while the OBC cut off is 95.34.
  • In Mains exam 2019: EWS cut off is 696 while the OBC, SC, ST cut off is 718, 706, 699 respectively.
  • In Interview 2019: EWS cut off is 909 while the OBC cut off is 925. 
  • Every reserved category is having its own cut-off list that ultimately depends upon the number of candidates who actually come forward to avail the quota in that category and their subsequent performance. 
  • If few people are availing of the EWS quota, then its cut off is bound to be lower in comparison to other categories.
  • This also indicates that the candidates from the EWS category would have found it almost impossible to make it without quota.
  • It also raises questions over the extent of the differences between the backward among forwards & the other categories.

Way Forward :

UPSC CSE 2019 results have shown a bright & clear path to its future aspirants. It once again shows that quality & hard work is the way out to achieve the dreams of being a civil servant.

Differences among the reserved categories with their cut off now give a new dimension to think about the policies of development of various social groups in the country.

Happy Studies!

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(Article) SCIENTIFIC REVISION TECHNIQUES FOR UPSC



(Article) SCIENTIFIC REVISION TECHNIQUES FOR UPSC



The UPSC Civil Services Examinations are considered as one of the prestigious & toughest examinations in the country. It needs a lot of strategic preparation & smart work to crack this exam. In all these preparation strategies, revision is considered as the key to success.

However, It is not advisable to read so many book’s sources, but important is to refer only to fewer sources and compiled study notes & to revise it multiple times.

Revision makes you confidant to excel in the exams. Revision is just like going with the same route again & again and your mind will remember everything on its way automatically. 

We will discuss some scientifically proven techniques used all over the world to do the most important thing of any learning process i.e. REVISION.

How our mind works :

‘Hippocampus’ is a structure inside the Temporal Lobe of Cerebral Cortex that forms a part of the mind, which is responsible for memory. Hippocampus is made up of densely packed neurons. It plays a vital role in regulating learning, memory encoding, memory consolidation, and spatial navigation.

How to improve the capacity of the ‘Hippocampus’ :

Improving the capacity of the Hippocampus means improving the learning process i.e. memory. Hippocampus can be polished & improved as below :

  • Low or Nil intake of sugar- Yes, sugar creates an artificial layer over the Hippocampus just like fog & facilitate the memory fading process. It is very much advisable to either completely stop or minimize the intake of sugar or any sugar-based products. Definitely, its not an easy task, but can be done in a phased manner. 
  • 7-8 hrs of daily sleep - A good sleep is required to recharge your mind & to accelerate the memory building process.
  • Sufficient physical exercise - Moderate exercise/ yoga of 45-60 mins on daily basis is required to maintain blood circulation & supply of fresh oxygen to mind & blood.
  • Fresh air- Fresh oxygen is like a fuel for the body & the mind.
  • Healthy diet - Healthy, balanced & nutritious diet is a complement to fresh air & necessary for the memory storing & building process.
  • Be happy & confident - Extreme worry will not lead to anywhere. The only way to combat worry is to act towards your goal. The more you act towards reaching your goal, the more you complete your stepwise revision task, the more you feel confidant. Be happy & feel confidant. 

Some necessities before getting up ready for the revision :

  • Eat a healthy diet: No & never ever skip breakfast. A healthy diet is essential to give your mind the required capacity to re-process the knowledge.
  • Put your phone away: Minimise the use of your phone or keep it away for at least one hour while doing revision. Nothing is more important than your revision except a few medical emergencies.
  • Start early - Start your day early & try to finish your revision prior to the scheduled time, because every time you revise, your revision time should be reduced considerably.
  • Teach somebody- If possible teach somebody, this will revise your concepts & also helps to reorganize your thoughts along with regular revision.
  • Use of highlighter - Highlighter should be used judiciously. Like all the facts can be highlighted in red color, the key concept can be highlighted in green , any new concept/ words can be highlighted in yellow color. After finishing the first reading of any chapter, highlighter should be used in the second reading, so that unnecessary highlighting can be avoided.
  • Regular break - On an average 10-20 minutes break is required after every hour of studies. This will helps in processing & storing knowledge in your memory.

Revision Techniques:

Standard Revision Method -

This is the commonest revision method employed by most of the civil services aspirants. 

Whatever you studied in the first five days, revise those studies in the last two days of that week. 

Hence every week or month your revision time should increase continuously. In this way, you will be able to learn new chapters along with the revision of previous materials.

During the completion stage of your syllabus,90% of your time should be used in revision while 10% of time should be used in learning new things.

Frequent Revision Method-

This method is commonly used by aspirants who are preparing for exams having a limited, defined & syllabus having more of a static nature. Since this requires frequent revision giving a toll on timely completion of the syllabus. However, if implemented giving sufficient time & planning, this method also proved to be beneficial for civil services preparation.

In this method, revision to be done on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th & 21st day of the same topics/chapters. This is just like learning car driving. An initial one or two revision you will take some time but while doing subsequent revisions, the mind automatically gets trained to move ahead on the desired path. 

Best Way Forward :

Adopt any method of revision based on your needs & applicability. Keep your studies sources judiciously minimum instead of scattering on many sources. Make maximum possible revisions & check your progress through mock tests to sail successfully through this examination process.

Happy Studies!

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(Notification) UPSC Indian Economic Service/Indian Statistical Service Examination (IES/ISS), 2021



Notification) UPSC Indian Economic Service/Indian Statistical Service Examination, 2021



No.12/2/2020-E.I(B) : A combined competitive examination for recruitment to Junior Time Scale of the Services mentioned in Para 2 below will be held by the Union Public Service Commission commencing from 16th July, 2021 in accordance with the Rules published by the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation in the Gazette of India dated the 07th April, 2021. 

Post Details:

The Services to which recruitment is to be made on the results of this examination and the approximate number of vacancies in Junior Time Scale of the Services are given below :-
(i) Indian Economic Service - 15
(ii) Indian Statistical Service - 11

NOTE : 01 vacancy has been kept reserved for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities for Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Indian Statistical Service and no vacancy has been kept reserved for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities for  the Indian Economic Service by the Government through IES/ISS Exam, 2021.

Minimum Educational Qualifications :

(a) A candidate for the Indian Economic Service must have obtained a Post-Graduate Degree in Economics/Applied Economics/Business Economics/Econometrics from a University incorporated by of an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time.

(b) A candidate for the Indian Statistical Service must have obtained a Bachelor's Degree with Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics as one of the subject or a Master's degree in Statistics/Mathematical Statistics/Applied Statistics from a University incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other Educational Institutes established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as University under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 or a Foreign University approved by the Central Government from time to time. 

Public Administration Papers Topic : Administrative Thought


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Administrative Thought


  • In what respects is Taylor's 'Scientific Management' or classical motivational theory different from the classical organizational theory expounded by Gulick,Urwick etc? (15 marks 2012)
  • What light does Antonio Gramsci's critique of Taylorism throw on its socio - psychological underpinnings? (15 marks 2012)
  • 'In the canonization of this abstract idea of 'StaatSraison' are inseparably woven the sure instincts of the bureaucracy for the conditions which preserve its own power in the State' [Weber). Explain. (12 marks 2012)
  • "Taylor's contribution was not a set of general principles for organising work efficiency, but a set of operating procedures that could be employed in each concrete situation to secure their application." (20 marks 2009)
  • "Taylor's scientific management ignored social and psychological factors." Comment. (20 marks 2007)
  • Weber's ideas of impersonal detachment and esprit de corps are incompatible. Explain. (60 marks2004)
  • "Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks empirical validity when applied to modern democratic administration." Examine. (20 marks 2003)
  • Consider the statements below: (i) "Technically, the bureaucracy represents the purest type of legal-rational authority."; (ii) "Bureaucracy does not represent the only type of legal authority." Identify the theoretical context and analyse the above statements. (30 marks 2009)
  • "Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed. from the common political life of the people; its chiefs as well as rank and file. Its motives, its objectives, its. policy, its standards must be bureaucratic." - Discuss. (20 marks 2004)
  • Explain the 'Peter Principle' in respect of promotion policy in a hierarchical organisation. (20 marks 2010)
  • Discuss the main approaches to increase the efficiency of government and public administration. (60 marks 2006)
  • Critically examine the Classical Science of Administration with special reference to its criticism by Dwight Waldo and Robert Dahl.  (60 marks 2006)
  • "The failure of classical science of administration lies in its capacity to confront theory with evidence." Discuss. (20 marks 2005)
  • Critically examine conflict resolution according to M. P. Follett. Explain how McGregor took forward her ideas to the context of complex organizations. (30 marks 2011)
  • "Mary Parker Follett was far ahead of her times." Discuss. (20 marks 2008)
  • "The main problem with Mary Parker Follett's work is that her idealism is showing". Explain. (20 marks 2006)
  •  In Follett's view, "authority belongs to the job and stays with the job." Explain. (20 marks 2005)
  • To what extent has the human relations movement contributed to the knowledge and. practice within the field of personnel administration? (60 marks 2006)
  • "The Barnard - Simon Theory of Organisation is essentially a theory of motivation." Comment. (20 marks 2009)
  • "Organisation is a system of consciously coordinated   activities or forces of two or more persons." Comment. (20 marks 2005)
  • 'Three features characterize Simon's original view of bounded rationality : search for alternatives, satisfying, and aspiration adaptation.' Elucidate.  (20 marks 2012)
  • "Simon's identifying decision - making as the core field of public administration appears logically acceptable but his positivist underpinning is problematic." Critically examine the statement. (40 marks 2010)
  • "Simon's work has had major implications for the study of public administration and the practice of public administration professionalism." Comment. (20 marks 2006)
  • "In McGregor's view, the managerial cosmology meaningfully addresses the understanding of manager and his role perceptions." Explain. (20 marks 2010)
  • 'The successful management leaders are found in Likert's 'System - 4' approach to organisational leadership." Examine. (20 marks 2010)
  • Analyse McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor's message has become more relevant and more important ? Substantiate your answer. (60 marks 2007)
  • The theory of organizational incompetence has two separate and distinct faces. Examine Chris Argyris’ views on this. (10 marks, 2013)
  • In the globalized Public Administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves. Comment (10 marks, 2013)
  • “The design of physical structures, the anatomy of the organization came first, and was indeed the principle consideration.” “An organization is a system of interrelated social behaviors of participants” Analyses these statements and evaluate the contribution of the respective approach to Administrative theory. (25 marks, 2013)
  • Decisions are not made by organizations, but by human beings behaving as the members of organizations. How do Bernard and Herbert A. Simon conceptualize the relation between decision of the individual employee and the organizational authority? (20 marks, 2013)
  • What is the nature of psychological contract pursued by organizational management through authority and employees through exertion of upward influence?  (15 marks, 2013)
  • Structure theory is by and large, grounded in classical principles of efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. (25 marks, 2013)
  • “Adaptive, problem-solving, temporary systems of diverse specialists, linked together by coordinating executives in an organic flux – this is the original form that will gradually replace bureaucracy.” Discuss, in the light of this statement, the ‘end of bureaucracy’ thesis and its strengths and limitations. (10 marks, 2014)
  • “Taylor’s ideas need modification in the context of post-industrial economies in contemporary era.” Justify with reasons. (15 marks, 2014)
  • “The notion of informal organization is a residual of cafeteria concept of diverse and sprawling contents.” How does Gouldner establish the need for understanding the inter digitations between the ‘formal’ and ‘informal’ organization? (15 marks, 2014)
  • “Contemporary Organisational theory seems further afield of Chester Barnard’s Functions of the Executive than of organisational ecology.” Examine the statement in the light of ecological elements in Barnard’s thought. (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Follett’s work was not directed towards the resolution of the conflict of ideas, but towards the resolution of structural conflicts between workers and capitalists.” In the light of the statement critically evaluate Follett’s idea of dynamic administration. (20 marks, 2015)
  • “Weberian model of bureaucracy lacks emotional validity when applied to modern democratic administration.” Comment. (15 marks, 2015)
  • “Taylorism is considered very controversial despite its popularity.” (Stephen P. Waring) Comment. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “Bureau-Shaping Model has been developed as a response to the Budget-Maximizing Model.” (15 marks, 2016)
  • “What is distinctive about the Classical and Human Relations Schools of thought administration is their complementarity  to each other “. Analyse (10 marks, 2017)
  • “Conflict is the appearance of differences –the difference of opinion and of interest”. (Mary Parker Follet). Comment(10 marks, 2017)
  • “Executive position imply a complex morality and require a high capacity of responsibility” – (Chester Bernand). Comment (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The concepts of rationality and efficiency are intertwined in the bureaucratic analysis of Max Weber." Comment. (10 marks, 2018)
  • Dwight Waldo in his book, The Administrative State emphatically mentions that the roots of administrative theory lie in political theory. Critically examine Waldo's contention. (20 marks, 2018)
  •  “Bureau pathology denigrates competence in organization.” Explain. (10 Marks,2019)
  • Mary Parker Follett traced the foundational value of business and enterprise on her way to understand the organism of governmental machinery. Comment. (15 Marks,2019)
  • Principles of analysis and principles of action were not differentiated in Taylor's scientific management. Comment.(10 Marks,2020)
  • Administrative man bridges the psychological man and the rational man. Explain.(10 Marks,2020)
  •  "Organizations of the future will be organic-adaptive structures but temporary systems." Discuss how Warren Bennis characterizes the new form of organization.(15 Marks,2020)
  • "Productivity is not the result of working conditions but the result of emotional response of workers to work performed." Are Elton Mayo's findings relevant in contemporary organizations? (15 Marks,2020)
  • Performance information use is a form of organizational behaviour that is influenced by individual job, organizational and environmental factors." Critically analyse. (20 Marks,2020)

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Public Administration Papers Topic :  Introduction


Public Administration Papers Topic :  Introduction


  • "The Study of Administration should start from the base of management rather than the foundation of law," Explain. (20 marks, 2010)
  • "Public and Private Administrations are two species of the same genius, but also have special values and techniques of their own." Comment (20 marks, 2007)
  • "If public administration is to play a major Legitimising role in governing our complex society, It needs to be more fully conceptualised." Discuss (20 marks, 2006)
  • "The field of Public Administration is a field of business." (Woodrow Wilson). (20 marks, 2009). Q.5 "Calling Woodrow Wilson,the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him." Comment (20 marks, 2008)
  • "Administrative questions are not political questions." Discuss (20 marks, 2005)
  • How would you trace the development of Public Administration in terms of paradigms from the politics /administration dichotomy of 1900-1926 to the rise of Public Administration as Public Administration after the formation of the National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) in the USA in 1970? (30 marks 2012)
  • In the evolution of the discipline of Public Administration. Minnowbrook Conference 1,2 and 3 reflect the discipline's reconceptualisation and its changing values. Elucidate. (30 marks 2011)
  • From Woodrow Wilson to Herbert Simon most writers on administration have taken the achievement of efficiency as the central objective. Justify the statement with references to the work of major writers. (60 marks 2009)
  • Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of Public Administration in the20th Century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of the 21st century ? (60 marks 2003)
  • "The advent of the concept of "roll back of the state" since the nineteen eighties has been altering the role of Public Administration but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society." Discuss. (60 marks 2003)
  •  "New Public Administration is a revolution or radicalism in words, and (at best) status-quo in skills or technologies." (20 marks 2009)
  • It is said that "the perspective of public administration, developed over a century, with a tradition of management of public institutions and services has received a jolt from the novelty of New Public Management". Bring out the core values, approaches and assumptions of traditional public administration and show how the New Public Management has attempted to change or retain them,and to what extent. (60 marks 2009)
  •  In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their administrative systems." Explain this phenomenon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement .  (60 marks 2008)
  • Civil Servants must be social moralists in action,living up  to Paul Appleby's dictum that 'responsible government is ethical government'. Examine this statement in the light of good governance. (30 marks 2011)
  • "Not merely governance but good governance is the key factor in achieving the United Nations Millennium Goals." Explain.  (20 marks 2010)
  •  Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples (60 marks 2004)
  • ‘On a more sophisticated plane public choice is concerned with "Pareto optimality", or at least with "Pareto improvements".’ Comment. (12 marks 2012)
  • Whereas Downs' model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen's model is framed by neoclassical thinking.
  • In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making. (30 marks 2011) 
  • How did the traditional Public Administration resolve the fundamentally irresolvable problem- creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not strong enough to endanger accountability? (10 marks, 2013)
  •  New Public Administration may have neither been the savior its enthusiasts promised, nor the devil its critics worried it would be. Discuss.(25 marks, 2013)
  • Public Administration in the neo-liberal era is government less by the instruments of accountability and more by those of external accountability Elaborate (10 marks, 2013)
  • A variety of different organizational arrangements can be used to provide different public goods and services. Example the theory underlying this proposition and its potential contribution. (15 marks, 2013)
  • Public interest is still inadequate as a ground concept to evaluate public policy. (25 marks, 2013)
  • What are the implications of the post-structuralism perspective on the discrete aspects of Public Administrations, coming from its epistemological positions? (10 marks, 2014)
  • “New Public Management and post-New Public Management reforms initiatives have affected the balance between managerial, political, administrative, legal, professional and social accountability.” Analyze. (20 marks, 2014)
  • Waldo’s The Administrative State’ provides a fundamental challenge to some of the orthodox premises. Explain. (10 marks, 2015)
  • Discuss how the Public Choice Theory promotes the concept of ‘Steering’ and undermines the concept of ‘Rowing’ in visualising efficient and effective administration. (10 marks, 2015)
  • “Globalisation has transformed the nature and character of State from traditional administrative Welfare State to a Corporate State.” Analyse the changes in the nature of public administration in this context. (20 marks, 2015)
  • “Public Administration is the translation of politics into the reality that citizens see   every day.”(Donald F. Kettl and James W . Fesler) Explain. (10 marks, 2016)
  • “The New Public Administration has seriously jolted the traditional concepts and outlook of the discipline and enriched the subject by imparting wider perspective by linking it closely to the society.” (Felix A. Nigro and Lloyd G. Nigro) Elucidate. (15 marks, 2016)
  • “Good governance is ensuring respect for human rights and strengthening democracy, promoting transparency and capacity in Public Administration.” (Kofi Annan) In the light of the statement, critically examine the criteria of good governance as provided by the United Nations and Nayef Al- Rodhan. (15 marks, 2016) 
  • Even after 130 years of its publication, Woodrow Wilson’s essay “The Study of Administration” continues to  have great relevance even today.” Comment (10 marks, 2017)
  • New Public Management has been branded by certain  scholars as ‘Neo-Taylorism’ . Is it a justified comparison? What factors have led to the decline of NPM as soon after its birth (20 marks, 2017)
  • “With every major transformation  in the applied world of Public Administration , the study of Public Administration  has grown in scope and intensity.” Discuss the relationship between the evolution of the discipline and profession of Public Administration. (15 marks, 2017)
  • "The scope of the discipline of Public Administration is determined by what an administrative system does." Does it mean that the scope of this discipline is boundaryless ? Explain. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “New Public Service approach is an improvement over its predecessor, New Public Management." Discuss. (10 marks, 2018)
  • “The Phenomenological Approach advocated by the New Public Administration has obstructed the path of theory building in Public Administration." Comment. (15 marks, 2018)
  • "Political and administrative systems have reciprocal relationships.” Discuss. (15 marks, 2018)
  • “Public Administration is constantly being reinvented because it is contextual.” Elaborate. (10 Marks, 2019)
  • With the entry of the concept of ‘good governance’ the discipline of Public Administration has shed its statist character. Explain. (15 Marks, 2019)
  • Has New Public Management failed in promoting a democratic polity? Analyze in the contexts of individuals as a citizen and individuals as a customer. (15 Marks, 2019)
  • “Globalization has constructed the administrative state to save and serve corporate power structure.” Discuss how transnational corporations impact government and public administration in the contemporary era. (20 Marks, 2019)
  • "The strength of Public Administration is in its exploration of the complexities and nuances of public policy making and implementation." Discuss. (10 Marks, 2020) (10 Marks, 2020)
  • The movement towards governance as an organizing concept for public administration and management is because the focus of administration has been shifting from the bureaucratic state to the 'hollow state' and 'third-party government. Critically examine. (20 Marks, 2020)
  • New Public Service emphasizes democracy and citizenship as the basis for public administration theory and practice. Elucidate. (20 Marks, 2020)
  • "Accountability under New Public Management has undergone a radical change, although the focus has continued to remain on management." Comment (20 Marks, 2020)

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(Article) BENEFITS OF STUDYING 8 HOURS INSTEAD OF 16 HOURS A DAY



(Article) BENEFITS OF STUDYING 8 HOURS INSTEAD OF 16 HOURS A DAY



There were two woodcutters, both used to cut woods for their living. Both of them work for the same time in the forest. One woodcutter becoming richer and richer while other was poor. One day a learned wise man saw their daily routine to find out their differences.

He learned something that changed his life & his way of thinking.

Both woodcutters used to work for 8 hours but the difference was that the rich woodcutter used to spend 4 hours to sharpen his axe but the other keep on cutting without improving his axe.

Moral of the story: 

Hope you got the point. Smart work is required to get through upsc exam instead of hard work. Hard work is required to do things smartly.

Think about :

If somebody wants to study 16 hours per day, of course, he can study for up to 24 hours also. After all, 24 is more than 16 hours.

But, the question here is ‘’Why do you want to increase your study hours’’? It’s just because you want to learn more.

Let me tell you that increasing the number of hours beyond a certain point is not only futile but even can be counter-productive.

How it drains your capacity :

After every passing hour, the capacity of the mind decreases to retain & recall the things compared to a fresh mind. You will end up just see the clock counting hours but mind it, your mind might not able to retain & recall things.

The quantity of learning in the second & subsequent hours of continuous study is less than the first fresh hour. If you continue to study without break for third, fourth, fifth & subsequent hours it will be a continuous deterioration in learning quality.

Even it may be negligible in the subsequent continuous hours. Although, you may have the satisfaction of moving towards that 12–14–16–20 hours study target, your output 

with every foregone hour will add continuously less and less to your learning.

Your whole concentration is on achieving the target of studying 14-16 hours, compromising the quality of the effective study, and then how will you able to concentrate?

Studying 15-16 hours per day is possible for only 2-3 days if very necessary. 

Studying at high pitch continuously drain your body's capacity to recover & hamper retaining capacity.

What can be done :

After an hour or one & half an hour, there must be a break of 15-20 mins. So that your mind can get sufficient time to restore & recall things in mind. 

 After every break go outdoors in a green environment, go jogging, or do any physical activity. This will circulate your blood movement & helps in getting oxygen to the mind.

With this recharge of fresh oxygen to the mind, your mind will be able to learn & retain things.

Your output will increase manifold.

Just don't stick with the pages you also want to remember something. Yes, you can study a novel or any interesting story continuously for 16 -20 hours if you want, although it’s not advisable.

But preparing for civil services or any other competitive exam is not like a story or novel, you need to remember the facts & concepts. For this, your mind needs sufficient time.

Don't deprive your body of sleep & other physical activity, it hampers your power to remember.  Need not to mention that all those stress hormones going to kick in a very bad way.

How to plan studies effectively :

Out of 8-10 hours, fix 6-8 hours per day for continuous new learning & remaining 2 hours for revision the previous days/week/month studies in a planned way. This will train your

mind to grab & retain new things & also your mind will be trained in recalling the previously stored items. 

In this way you are sharping your axe !

Like every machine & any other living being our body also has the optimum capacity, if it is utilized in a proper way it will work better & for a longer duration.

No need to torture your brain, mind and soul for 16 or 24 hours. It isn't an exercise. It is simply learning, retaining & recalling things. Study slowly. Enjoy it and concentration will come along. 

Best Way out :

The success mantra is the continuity & consistency of studies. Make your schedule in such a way so that you can study 8-10 hours daily on a routine basis without compromising

on other necessary leisure activities. 

Remember 3R- REVISION, RETAINING, RECALLING.

Best of Luck!

Happy Studies!

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Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper-2 (Question: 2)



Public Administration Mains 2020 : Solved Paper Question Paper-2 (Question-2)



Section A

  • Exam Name: UPSC IAS Mains Public Administration (Paper-II)
  • Marks: 250
  • Time Allowed: 3 Hours

Q2.(a) District administration is the most important unit in governance. Most of the Central and State Government schemes and programmes are directed towards the district administration. In this context, discuss the challenges and problems posed to the district administration.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

(b) The structural part of the Constitution of India is to a large extent derived from the Government of India Act, 1935, whereas its philosophical part has many other sources. Discuss the sources of the philosophical part.

Like  other  Constitutions, the  Indian Constitution also commences with a preamble, which reflects the aspirations and expectations of the people of India. Notably, the Indian Constitution has set up parliamentary democracy of the type established by the Federal Constitutions of Canada and A u s tr al ia . Nevertheless, this idealized notion, forming part of the motto of “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” of the French Revolution has special relevance for a multi-racial and polity- a religious country like India. It would be clear from the foregoing description that the preamble of the Indian Constitution provides a framework of ideas and values for the Indian administration. Since the responsibility of enforcing the Constitution is that of the government,  it is expected of the administrative system, which is an integral component of the executive branch of government, to facilitate the application of the ideals of liberty, equality, justice, socialism and secularism in the governance of the country. Not only need governmental laws and politics reflect these interrelated ideas, but the functioning of the administrative system, including the attitudinal orientations and behaviour of administrators, should manifest these ideals and values. In an ideal-typical situation, the nature and performance of the administrative system would be judged in the context of the values forming its context. Nevertheless, any such appraisal will have to be realistic enough, taking into account the limitations imposed by a complex and volatile environment affecting administration.

(c) The public services in India are an evolution of the British Raj. Trace the Indianization of the services.

ANSWER: ONLY FOR COURSE MEMBERS

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