Why interest sops for exports can’t
work (The Hindu)
Mains Paper 3 : Economy
Prelims level : Interest Equalisation Scheme
Mains level : Reason behind adopting IES by the government
- The government changed the Interest Equalisation Scheme (IES) which is
available to some exporters.
- The broad objective of the IES is to provide exporters with a cheap
source of rupee credit both for pre-shipment and post-shipment activities.
- In India, nominal and real rates of interest are relatively on the
higher side compared to some of the other countries. This makes cost of
capital expensive and it may affect competitiveness of exporters.
Reason behind adopting IES by the government
- The government uses the IES as an export incentive, whereby eligible
exporters get interest subvention on their export credit.
- It is expected that cheaper working capital will enable these exporters
to become more competitive.
- The original IES, which was launched in 2015, provided incentive to all
manufacturer-exporters who were MSMEs and all manufacturer-exporters under
416 specific tariff lines at 4-digit HS code.
- These 416 products were largely labour intensive manufactured goods and
chosen with a broader goal to promote export-led job growth in
- The IES-2015 did not become very popular among exporters in India.
- While launching the scheme, the government estimated the financial
implication of the scheme to be ₹2,500-2,700 crore per year.
- However, from a Rajya Sabha question dated July 18, 2018, it appears
that only ₹4,829 crore was spent in the first three-and-a-half years of its
implementation (2015-16 to July 2018).
- This implies only about 55 per cent utilisation of the scheme by the
- As highlighted in a paper by the RBI, these twin shocks may have
disrupted the MSME supply chain and had a negative impact on exports from
- Apart from these, lack of awareness among exporters and banks about this
facility may have resulted in low utilisation.
- Also, high interest rate in India could have discouraged the exporters.
- It is possible that, even with an interest subvention of 3 per cent, the
rate of interest plus the assortment of processing fees charged by banks for
export credit may still have been high, discouraging Indian exporters from
borrowing from the domestic banking sector.
- To make the scheme more popular, the government introduced some major
changes in the IES.
- In November 2018, a change in policy increased interest subvention from
3 per cent to 5 per cent for exporters from the MSME sector.
- However, non-MSME large exporters, who export the 416 eligible products,
will continue to receive interest subvention at 3 per cent. Subsequently, in
January 2019, another change in policy was introduced.
- This amendment now allows merchant exporters of these 416 products to
take advantage of the interest equalisation scheme at 3 per cent.
- It is notable that previously only producer-exporters were eligible for
- It is argued by the government that MSMEs export a significant amount of
products through merchant exporters; they play an important role in finding
overseas markets and getting export orders.
- Extending these benefits to the merchant exporters should facilitate
higher exports from the MSME sector.
WTO Subsidies and Countervailing Measures agreement
- According to the WTO Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM)
agreement, any measure by a national government, which is either a financial
contribution or revenue foregone and is contingent upon export performance,
is considered an export subsidy.
- Export subsidies are prohibited by the WTO and if a country is found to
be providing them, it must remove them at the earliest.
- The IES is contingent upon exports and hence would be treated as
prohibited subsidy in the WTO. The WTO has a rapid (three-month) dispute
settlement mechanism for complaints regarding prohibited subsidies.
- This problem was not there in 2015 when the IES was introduced.
- Till 2017, India was under a special status for poor countries in the
WTO which allowed exemption from the prohibition on export subsidies.
- However, India graduated from that exemption in 2017.
- Therefore, according to the WTO rules, IES will be treated as a
prohibited subsidy. In the present global trade scenario where countries are
combative and protectionist, it is expected that they will challenge these
measures and Indian exporters are unlikely to get away with these.
- Therefore, export contingent incentive measures may not be a prudent
Extend the reach
- A possible solution can be to make interest subvention available to the
entire MSME sector.
- The government can make it contingent on non-trade measures like
production, value addition and job creation.
- There are two advantages of this.
- First, this way the interest subvention scheme will not be an
export-contingent subsidy; hence it will not be treated as a prohibited
subsidy in the WTO.
- And, second, this will extend lower cost of capital for the firms in the
MSME sector who are producing for the domestic market.
- Given the sluggish global demand and tensions related to potential
trade-wars, facilitating the entire MSME sector may make more sense than
focussing only on exporters from the MSME sector.
- Non-MSME labour-intensive firms may also be given some incentives for
- The policymakers must redesign the IES to make it more effective under
the present global trade regime.
- A more horizontal and cross cutting interest subvention scheme may take
care of the relatively high rate of interest prevailing in the Indian
economy now and help in employment generation.
Q.1) An initiative named ‘Operation Olivia’, recently seen in news,
(a) Use of olives for the production of biofuels
(b) Enhancing the production of Olive oil in India
(c) Saving Olive Ridley Turtles
(d) A citizen initiative to restrict escalating tensions between India and
Q.1) Interest subvention for exporters, besides not picking up, goes against WTO
norms. A solution is to extend it to all MSMEs. Analyse this statement.