Mains Paper 2: Governance
Prelims level: NCTE
Mains level: Professional training requirement in education sector
Like many other topics, teaching and those who earn a living by teaching
are subjects of a highly polarised debate in our country.
This low popularity of school teaching can be linked to several changes
that social ethos and state policy have gone through over the last three
decades or so.
In a consumption-oriented environment, the kind of idealism school
teaching requires is not easy for a young person to cultivate and sustain.
The working conditions and ethos at their respective schools erode the
stamina of the few who start with a sense of dedication.
Weak professional training
Speaking of training, the vast majority of teachers being hired today
have had their professional training in poorly equipped institutions.
Weak professional preparation is not a recent woe, but it has certainly
worsened under the ‘licensing raj’ of the National Council of Teacher
There was a time when teacher training had no licensing authority.
The NCTE was an advisory body then, with no statutory powers. It
acquired legal teeth as a result of the NCTE Act, 1993.
The new, empowered NCTE came into being two years later.
The mid-1990s marked a period of tumultuous change in the landscape of
public education. The impact of market-friendly policies was spreading
across the system, but it was the most palpable in professional education.
Private enterprise in medical, engineering and management education had
already set in. Compared to these areas, teacher training was both cheap and
Require for qualified teacher
Demand for qualified teachers rode the wave of rapid growth in primary
In response to this demand, teacher-education institutes and
correspondence courses mushroomed.
The NCTE had a difficult mandate to fulfil and had to maintain standards
by regulating a bullish market of enrolment providers. Initially, it seemed
as if the NCTE’s regulatory role would succeed in imposing quality norms.
However, before long, the body’s failure to control the flood of
commercial private interests started looking inevitable.
Teacher training was, of course, not the only area of professional
education to be corrupted by the new licensing regime.
The system of education was in general battling hard to find ways to
regulate the swelling, strong current of privatisation.
Corruption in teacher training sector
The teacher-training sector became so afflicted by fraudulent
institutions and practices that internal mechanisms of correction proved
Hundreds of cases against bogus institutions reached the Supreme Court,
which appointed a commission chaired by late Justice J.S. Verma.
Steps taken to improve education curriculum
For a few years after 2012, when its report was published, an attempt
was made to implement its recommendations, but the momentum slowed down
Several recommendations required substantial state funding, but the NCTE
had already taken the self-financing route. Its institutional capacity to
provide academic leadership to teacher training was already limited.
Its further decline coincided with the rise of technological gimmickry.
However, it would be wrong to hold the NCTE alone responsible.
The wider problems of higher education have also made their contribution
to the decline of teacher training.
This is not hard to explain. Graduates whose college education is of
poor quality cannot be expected to overcome their learning backlog at a
Faculty shortage exacerbates this deprivation.
The government recently came up with a policy decision favouring
four-year courses that integrate undergraduate learning with pedagogic
This model is not new, and its success depends on investment in
But with commercialisation fully entrenched in teacher education, one
cannot expect generous spending on faculty and infrastructure.
Impact on school education
Problems of teacher training have had a pervasive impact on school
education as a whole. Governments have been aware of this, both at the
Centre and in the States.
One of the steps they have taken to fill the quality gap is to introduce
a teacher-eligibility test.
This has only made a marginal difference, as the proportion of trained
teachers who get through the test is low, creating a vast backlog in
On the other hand, para-professionals have been growing in number and
They are known by various names in different States, but they also exist
in vast numbers outside the system — as providers of home tuition and
This underbelly of the education system suffers no interference from
state norms. In the world of coaching, we see the utopia of free enterprise
and the demise of teaching as noble work.
This marginalisation is reflective of the social change that has taken
place in the country and flags the diminishing importance of intellect.
This is also evident from the news about our greatest historian being
insulted by her university. Our collective vulnerability to the power of
propaganda and rumour is not new; disrespect for the teacher’s dedication to
a life of intellect is.
No matter what the subject and howsoever limited his or her own
knowledge, every teacher tries to nudge his students towards reality and
Children want their teacher to verify and appreciate their efforts.
Having faith in his/her teacher is a part of being a child, a blow to
which will disturb the foundations of social living.
Q.1) Quite often, we come across the term “Highly Leveraged”.
Consider the following statements: 1. The term indicates “less skin in the game”.
2. Indian public sector banks can be considered as examples for Highly
3. High leverage is the primary reason for high NPAs.
Which of the above is/are correct? a) 1 only
b) 1 and 3 only
c) 1 and 2 only
d) All of the above
Q.1) Changes in social ethos and state policy have pushed the once-venerated
Indian teacher to the margins of public life. Critically examine the statement.