China remains wary of the Quad and its
future contours (Indian Express)
Mains Paper 2: International relations
Prelims level: QUAD group
Mains level: Position of QUAD with respect to China
Quad convened on November 4 at the level of senior officials on the
margins of the EAS in Bangkok.
The US Secretary of State said that the “Quad” between Japan, Australia,
India, and the United States would ensure that “China retains only its
proper place in the world”.
The Chinese Foreign Ministry retorted to condemn the American
plain-speaking as habitual lies and malicious slandering.
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe proposed in early 2007 to hold a
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
It was endorsed by US Vice President and the governments of India and
Australia, leading to the first meeting at the official level.
There was a general understanding that it would not take on a military
dimension against any country.
Abe’s “Confluence of Two Seas” address to the Indian Parliament gave a
fresh impetus to the nascent concept. Abe had spoken of a “broader Asia”
taking shape at the confluence of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
The economic rise of India and brought Japan and India together as part
of a network spanning the entirety of the Pacific Ocean, the US, and
Australia. It was seen as a network that would allow people, goods, capital,
and knowledge to flow freely.
The Quad dissipated when Australia walked away on account of Chinese
Later, Asia’s “Democratic Security Diamond” was announced – involving
Australia, India, Japan, and the US to safeguard the maritime commons from
the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific.
Differences among the Quad countries have narrowed down in the last two
years. They hold a common interest in the creation of a free, open and
inclusive regional architecture, rules of the road, freedom of navigation
and overflight, and, ASEAN centrality.
Even as the US has described China and Russia as revisionist powers,
Japan has dropped the word “strategy” from its own Free and Open
Indo-Pacific to better ties with China.
Japan’s overwhelming economic dependence on China, Australia’s continued
commitment to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership with China signify the
nations’ relationship with China.
China believes that the concept of the Indo-Pacific and Quad is a plot
by the US to contain its rise.
It believes that trilateral compacts involving the US, Japan and India
and the US, Japan, and Australia are aimed at strengthening the Quad.
China believes in “Asia-Pacific” for building an inclusive regional
cooperative structure. A switch to “Indo-Pacific” implies erosion of its
Chinese five-point formula for Asia Pacific
To making greater efforts to work together on the BRI
To forging China-ASEAN digital cooperation, including in 5G
To fully implementing the China-ASEAN FTA
To finalising regional rules-of-the-road based on the negotiating text
of the Code of Conduct
To engaging in joint maritime exercises
China – ASEAN
China also pitched for synergies between the BRI and ASEAN’s
China has signed bilateral agreements with ASEAN countries to advance
transportation routes, including the existing economic corridors,
China-Thailand Railway, China-Laos Railway, and Jakarta-Bandung high-speed
India – China
India’s commitment to “strategic autonomy” is reassuring to China. It
suggests that India would never agree to fully align itself with the US
This impression has been reinforced by India holding up Australia’s
participation in the annual Malabar naval exercise.
India did not join the Indo-Pacific Business Council.
The recent Mamallapuram summit is a positive development as the key to
giving strategic guidance to stakeholders on both sides.
China – other QUAD nations
With Japan, the opportunity for China lies in working together on
agreed-upon projects in third countries
Australia is an alliance partner of the US and is involved in freedom of
navigation operations in the South China Sea. China wants to leverage its
deep economic engagement to balance the hard line being taken by Australia’s
security and intelligence establishment.
China remains wary of the Quad and its future contours.
It remains worried about the advantages that the Quad process might
offer to India in the Indo-Pacific.
It will seek to use its considerable bilateral engagement with Japan,
Australia as well as India to ensure that the Quad does not flip over from a
regional coordinating mechanism focused on connectivity and Infrastructure,
capacity-building, HADR and maritime security and cyber security and
counter-terrorism to become an “Asian NATO”.
Much will depend on China’s actions and how others perceive her
capabilities and intentions.
Q.1) With reference to the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and
Ladakh, consider the following statements: 1. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been officially bifurcated into the
Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh on October 31, the birth
anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
2. The two union territories will have separate high courts.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) What are the major challenges ahead for China with other QUAD
countries? What is the Chinese five-point formula for Asia Pacific?