The Amazon fires, an alarm that lacks
proportion (The Hindu)
Mains Paper 3: Environment
Prelims level: IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
Mains level: Environmental impact assessment
- The upsurge of global environmental anxiety over the recent spate of
forest fires in the Amazon, apparently marking a renewed push to
deforestation, is clearly testimony to the heightened awareness of the
danger to human security represented by global warming.
- The provocatively anti-environmental and climate denial views of
Brazil’s President, Jair Bolsonaro, and his colleagues, the reining in of
environmental controls if not disabling them, the President’s initial air of
unconcern, and his absurd counter-allegations regarding the causes, have all
contributed to exacerbating this anxiety.
- Predictably, this has drawn the ire of environmentalists, and public and
government opinion globally, though the global media has been more
The emissions math
- As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes in its
Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), the cumulative net addition of carbon to the
earth system from terrestrial ecosystems since 1750 amounts to 30 Gigatonne
(Gt) with an uncertainty of plus or minus 45 Gt.
- In the words of the IPCC in the AR5: “The net balance of all terrestrial
ecosystems, those affected by land use change and the others, is thus close
to neutral since 1750.”
- Though cumulative emissions from land-use change since 1750 amounted to
almost 180 Gt, driven largely by the more than six-fold expansion of
cropland, they were compensated by the 160 Gt of absorption by existing
vegetation not subject to land use change.
- Fossil fuel use, in contrast, contributed 375 Gt since 1750, that is
more than 12 times that of the net cumulative emissions from terrestrial
- This pattern in carbon accounting also extends to annual emissions. On
an average, the Global Carbon Project reports, fossil fuel emissions
currently pump about 9.9 Gt of carbon annually into the atmosphere, while
land-use change accounts for 1.5 Gt. But terrestrial ecosystems absorbed 3.8
Gt. Taking sources and sinks together, they are a net sink.
- For tropical forests alone, following literature cited in the AR5,
annual emissions (averaged over 1990 to 2007) due to deforestation and
logging amounted to 2.9 Gt of carbon, while this was compensated by carbon
absorption due to forest regrowth (1.64 Gt), recovering from deforestation
and logging, and carbon absorption by intact forests (1.19 Gt).
- As a result, overall, tropical forests were marginally a source of
emissions of about 0.11 Gt of carbon per year. Clearly there is no cause for
complacency here, but nor is this yet an emergency.
No magic bullet
- The story with respect to the Amazon River Basin and its tropical forest
cover is very similar. By one scientific estimate, the Amazon, in 1980,
stored 128 Gt of carbon, with 94 Gt in vegetation and 33 Gt in the reactive
component of soil carbon.
- Subsequent evolution of the carbon storage in the Amazon, makes for a
complex story. But while preservation of the Amazon as a carbon pool is
essential, such preservation clearly is not the magic bullet that would
counteract the impact of fossil fuel emissions.
- The bottom line from this evidence is that fossil fuel emissions have a
lasting impact of a kind that deforestation and land use change do not.
- The effect of the latter can be partially repaired over time, albeit
slowly, as the data on tropical forests demonstrates, while untouched
forests and living biomass continue to absorb carbon. Fossil fuel emissions
from coal, oil, and gas cannot however be put back in to where they came
- Nor can their cumulative emissions be compensated by increased
vegetation, since it will amount to increasing the cumulative absorption of
terrestrial ecosystems to an improbable level.
Impact on forest ecosystem
- Forest ecosystems, in balance, will suffer from the overall impact of
global warming, degrading their extent and quality.
- The year’s tally, till August 25, was 80,626, a 78% increase
year-on-year. However, in Peru it is 105% higher, and in Bolivia 107%, both
part of the Amazon basin.
- There are forest fires elsewhere, extensive in Africa, particularly in
Angola, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (attributed to
slash-and-burn agriculture), in Siberia (three million hectares) and in
Canada, both attributed to unusually high summer temperatures (this July
being the warmest month ever).
- Brazil’s tally this year is nowhere yet near its highs from 2005 and
2010, when it exceeded 120,000 for the comparable period of the year.
- Brazil has also put in substantial effort over the last decade to slow
down deforestation, with some notable success, reducing it by 2013 to 75% of
its pre-2005 annual average, success that was hailed globally.
- It is quite likely that Mr. Bolsanaro represents a reaction to the tough
measures that accompanied this effort, not only from agribusiness in soy and
beef production, as has been plausibly argued, but also a large section of
small farmers who found it difficult to shift from slash-and-burn to
- Apart from deforestation though, Brazil is by no means a high emissions
country, and a model of renewable energy use from hydro power and biofuels.
What then has driven the global outrage against Mr. Bolsanaro?
- On the part of global public opinion, the notion that afforestation
constitutes some kind of magic bullet to fight global warming, is a popular
- The Amazon was always the poster-child of conservation and biodiversity,
and halting deforestation there a global cause célèbre among
environmentalists and their movements.
- With global warming, the difficulty in slowing down fossil fuel
emissions provides added fuel to such views, even if the evidence militates
- However, the attitude of the governments of developed countries and many
international non-governmental organisations that share these views, is
clearly driven by other considerations.
- These nations have notably failed to deliver in reducing their fossil
- As a 2018 report of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) has noted, the developed countries (excluding the former
Soviet bloc nations whose emissions plummeted along with their economies)
have achieved a reduction of only 1.3% over 26 years from 1990.
- The only way to maintain the Paris Agreement’s promise, that they
brokered, of restricting global warming to well below 2° C or indeed 1.5°C
is by turning the screws on mitigation in the non-industrial sectors.
- These sectors play a major role in the emissions of most developing
countries, however low they may be in absolute terms.
- The Amazon and other terrestrial ecosystems offer much needed room to
manoeuvre in dealing with global warming.
- But without reducing fossil fuel emissions drastically and the global
North paying back its carbon debt by taking the lead, there can be little
hope of meeting the climate challenge.
Q.1) With reference to the Right to Information Act, 2005, which of the
following statements is/are correct?
1. It provides for the appointment of a public information officer in each
2. The Official Secrets Act, 1923 overrides the RTI Act.
3. No court can entertain any suit, application or other proceedings in respect
of any order made under the Act.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.1) What has been the overall contribution of deforestation and land use change
to global carbon emissions?
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