Rethinking water governance strategies
Mains Paper 2: Governance
Prelims level: Composite Water Management Index
Mains level: Measures adopted by the governments to boosts groundwater level
- India’s severe ‘water crisis’ is in the news recently.
- India’s cities are running out of water. Chennai witnessed the worst
drinking water woes.
- Niti Aayog’s report ‘Composite Water Management Index: A tool for water
management’ stated that 21 major cities are expected to run out of
groundwater as soon as 2020, affecting nearly 100 million people.
- The Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) has been reporting on the
increasing number of over-exploited blocks across India, labeled as the
‘dark’ category blocks. The recent annual book of CGWB has reported 1,034
units, out of the 6,584 units it monitors, as over-exploited.
- CGWB’s 2013 estimates say that the groundwater development in India is
just about 62% of the utilizable groundwater reserves.
- A recent report by the Central Water Commission and ISRO asserted that
India is not yet in “water scarcity condition”, but in a “water-stressed
condition”, with reducing per capita water availability.
- To ensure adequate access to quality water, more so in urban areas where
inequities over space and time are acute. With rapid urbanization, demand
cannot be met by groundwater reserves alone.
- The groundwater meets just 10% of Delhi’s drinking water needs. The rest
is met by surface water sources transported from outside Delhi.
- Water resource departments in States are following conventional
approaches to supply augmentation. They should reorient themselves and
deploy demand management, conservation, and regulation strategies.
- Centre and states should work towards an institutional change by
building federal governance of water resources.
Q.1) Which among the following subjects comes under the Concurrent list?
1. Public Health and Sanitation
2. Agriculture including agricultural education and research
4. Bankruptcy and insolvency
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. All the above
D. 3 and 4 only
Q.1) Individual States need to assume the responsibility for managing water
resources in their territories. Critically analyse the statement.