Mains Paper 3: Economy
Prelims level : Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
Mains level : Significance of the IBC
At the end of September 2019, the GNPA was at 9.1 per cent of banks’
loans and other outstandings.
Significance of the IBC:
Credit for this has been given to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
While it has indeed put the fear of God into defaulting company
promoters (who don’t want to lose the controlling interest in the company to
the highest bidder), for banks it means huge sacrifices, euphemistically and
flippantly described as ‘haircuts’, in the range of 50-60 per cent.
‘Cleaning up’ the balance sheet:
Balance sheets of banks look squeaky clean when bad debts (or NPAs) are
brushed under the carpet after the IBC resolution process is over. But then,
banishing the problem is not the same as finding a solution.
The IBC resolution process, to be sure, is better than the earlier state
of affairs when banks would wait helplessly for years wringing their hands
in desperation. In the end, they may recover a small portion, which is
better than nothing.
While the grim prospect of losing control of the company is bound to
halt the rampaging promoters in their tracks, the economic downturn and
genuine business issues often come in the way of loan and interest
Some fly-by-night, thick-skinned operators do not really lose sleep over
losing control of their companies.
Banks have also been guilty of courting trouble by lending to
long-gestation infrastructure projects. Asset-liability mismatch (ALM) is a
If a bank has accepted fixed deposits of ₹1,000 crore for three years,
it must earmark this for loans of shorter maturities.
Otherwise it may find itself in a fix, with depositors demanding their
money back after three years.
It is to avoid ALM that take-out financing emerged on the scene. Like a
relay race, with bank A passes the baton to bank B after the first three
years, bank B to bank C after the next three years and so on, so that no
bank faces the pitfalls of an ALM.
But in India, take-out financing is extremely inadequate, with
specialised infrastructure financing agencies like IIFCL passing the buck to
the banks instead of undertaking loan appraisal upfront, and then bringing
the banks into picture when things have stabilised.
Banks which read the riot act to mortgagers and gold-loan clients have,
alas, no immediate and sure-shot recourse when it comes to industrial loans.
They do compensate for this extra risk by charging higher interests, but
when the loans go sour, interest too stops flowing in.
The government and the RBI must celebrate only when they succeed in
preventing NPAs from building up in the first place, rather than after
brushing them under a carpet.
Q.1) With reference to the new Wetland Conservation Rules, consider the
following statements: 1. The rules prohibit setting up or expansion of industries and disposal of
construction and demolition waste within the wetlands.
2. A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water permanently and not
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) What is the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code? What are the limitations