Mains Paper 2: Health
Prelims level : Not much
Mains level : Loopholes in health system in India
At JK Lon Hospital in Kota, 105 infants died in December alone. In
neighbouring Gujarat, 111 infants died in Rajkot Civil Hospital and 85
deaths were recorded in Ahmedabad Civil Hospital, also in December.
The divergence in Gujarat between its economic and social indicators (as
indeed for India as a whole) points to the problems with India’s model of
development, where the State has persistently under-invested in the social
Causes of death:
As for the prevalence of hunger amidst a stockpile of foodgrains, the
government needs to do some explaining.
Community medicine research has established the role of nutrition in
keeping even vector-borne diseases like malaria at bay.
In Rajasthan, the report of a government panel reveals that a majority
of infants died due to hypothermia.
The ICU did not have warmers to maintain the infant body temperature at
its ideal of 36.5 degrees Celsius.
Of the total 28 nebulisers, 22 were dysfunctional, there were no para
monitors or oxymeters that are routinely required to monitor oxygen levels,
there was no oxygen pipeline, and the ICU had not been fumigated for months.
These revelations are reflective of both the appalling state of public
hospitals in India and the vulnerability to disease of the impoverished
In the range of 1.2-1.4 per cent of GDP over the past decade, public
financing of health accounts for less than a third of overall, mostly out of
pocket, health expenditure.
As a result, life expectancy at birth in India is lower than in Nepal
The infant mortality rate is higher than that of Bangladesh.
Full immunisation rate of children is 62 per cent while many countries
in Sub-Saharan Africa have rates higher than 90 per cent.
The urgency of a substantial increase in public financing of health
care, besides health system reforms, cannot be greater.
Q.1) With reference to the Neelachal Ispat Nigam Limited (NINL), consider
the following statements: 1. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has recently given
in-principle approval for the sale of equity held by four Central Public Sector
Enterprises and two-state PSUs in Neelachal Ispat Nigam Limited (NINL).
2. It is a company promoted by MMTC Ltd, Industrial Promotion and Investment
Corporation of Orissa limited.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) What are the major causes of children and infants death in India?