India’s growth hinges on cooperative
federalism (The Hindu)
Mains Paper 2: Polity
Prelims level: Cooperative federalism
Mains level: Development of cooperative federalism
- In the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index released last month,
India ranked 63, an impressive jump from its lowly rank of 142 in 2014.
- The government amended the terms of reference of the 15th Finance
Commission a few months ago asking that allocations for defence and internal
security be carved out upfront, before determining the pool of resources to
be shared with the states, the latter baulked at the highhandedness of the
- It has been attempted to reform the land acquisition law by tweaking the
balance in favour of investors, but quickly buckled down as many states took
- Even though land is on the concurrent list in the Constitution, and a
central law would have prevailed notwithstanding states’ opposition.
Importance of states in India’s economic management:
- In the early years of our republic, the Centre dominated across all
domains — political, economic and administrative — and states, even those
led by leaders with political heft, acquiesced to this unequal arrangement.
- The reaction to central dominance came in the early 1980s when strong
regional leaders started agitating against “the hegemony of the Centre”.
- Several of them, for instance N T Rama Rao, built their political
careers on an “anti-Centre” platform.
- Much of the economic policy control stayed with the Centre which decided
not just public investment but even private investment through its
industrial and import licensing policies, leaving the states on the margins
of economic management.
Three trends in economic reforms:
- That arrangement started to change with the onset of reforms from 1991.
- Three trends, in particular, have shifted the economic centre of gravity
from the Centre to the states
Change in the content of the reform agenda:
- The Centre could push through the reforms of the 1990s without even
informing, much less consulting, the states because they all pertained to
subjects such as industrial licencing, import permits, exchange rate and the
financial sector, which were entirely within its domain.
- In contrast, the second-generation reforms on the agenda now shift the
emphasis, to use economic jargon, from product to factor markets like land,
labour and taxation, which need, not just acquiescence, but often the
consent of states.
- There was a clash of interests not just between the Centre and states
but also between producer and consumer states, large and small states and
coastal and inland states.
- The grand bargain that culminated in the GST, admittedly imperfect,
involved all parties making compromises.
- But the deal could not be clinched until the Centre guaranteed to fill
the revenue gap, if any, of states according to an agreed formula.
Driving the economic centre of gravity towards states:
- This is the changing dynamics of our fiscal federalism. Ballpark
estimates suggest that the Centre collects about 60 per cent of the combined
revenue (Centre and states), but gets to spend only about 40 per cent of the
- This asymmetry is mirrored on the states’ side. Together, they collect
40 per cent of the combined revenue, but spend as much as 60 per cent of the
- The aggregates is the greater autonomy that states now enjoy in
determining their expenditure. Gone is the Planning Commission.
- The states now not only get a larger quantum of central transfers but
also get to decide on how to spend that larger quantum.
How states manage their public finances matters much more than before?
- The RBI in its latest annual report on state finances, raised several
red flags — states’ increasing weakness in raising revenue, their
unsustainable debt burden and their tendency to retrench capital
expenditures in order to accommodate fiscal shocks such as farm loan
waivers, power sector loans under UDAY and a host of income transfer
- As the RBI pointed out, the quality of expenditure at the state level
has a multiplier effect on overall development outcomes.
- Conversely, fiscal irresponsibility will take a heavy toll on our growth
and welfare prospects.
- The market will penalise mismanagement of public finances; it does not
much care who is responsible, the Centre or the states, for an unsustainable
debt burden or for even the colour of the fiscal deficit.
3. Growing importance in economic federalism:
- Their critical role in creating a conducive investment climate in the
country. Much of the responsibility for improving the ease of doing business
rests not with Delhi but with the states.
- This highlights the need for coordinated action.
- India’s prospects, including our aspiration for a $5 trillion economy,
depend on the Centre and the states working together.
- No one would know this better than Modi who combines over two decades of
experience as chief minister and prime minister.
- Arguably, he has another unique advantage in that more than two-thirds
of the states are currently governed by the BJP.
Q.1) With reference to the, consider the following statements:
1. It is among the three oldest and major festival days in Christianity, the
two others being Christmas and Easter.
2. It is a feast day which in Christianity marks the visit of the Three Kings to
the Infant Jesus.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) What are the key trends in economic reforms? How states manage their public
finances matters much more than before?