Mains Paper 4: Ethics
Prelims level: M. S. Golwalkar
Mains level: Lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers
and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in
Golwalkar, fondly remembered as Guruji, dedicated his life to the
awakening of nationalistic sentiments rooted in the philosophy of Swami
Vivekananda, Ramakrishna Paramahansa and Sri Aurobindo. Guruji made an
unforgettable contribution to society and nation-building, going on to live
as an ascetic.
Guruji is among the foremost symbols of such a selfless life. His entire
journey is a tale of the umpteen sacrifices and contributions towards
Born in 1906, Guruji completed his Masters from Banaras Hindu University
(BHU) with a first division.
He then took admission in a Chennai institute for research. He was,
however, compelled to give up on his research midway because of financial
Subsequently, he began teaching in BHU and soon he became famous as
Guruji. While Golwalkar taught at BHU, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya remained
deeply attached to him.
Guruji studied law as well but he remained unhappy with society’s mental
weaknesses and the fact that India continued to remain a British colony.
It was because of this sadness that Guruji moved towards spirituality
under the guidance of Swami Akhandananda, who was a disciple of Ramakrishna
Under Swami Akhandananda’s guidance, Guruji learnt the true meaning and
essence of sacrifice and detachment.
He realised that while many sacrifices are acceptable in the Indian
tradition, the sacrifice of one’s duty is considered a sin.
The real sacrifice, Guruji realised, was foregoing ego and personal
In 1937, Guruji was formally ordained by Swami Akhandananda. The same
year, Swami Akhandananda gave up his body.
Golwalkar found Keshav Baliram Hedgewar as the ideal person to take
forward the Sangh’s work of national and social awakening.
Golwalkar said of Hedgewar, “The work of the Sangh head is to prepare
swayamsevaks who have the best of characters along with a commitment towards
the work assigned to them. They must also be ready to sacrifice their entire
lives for the nation.
Dr Hedgewar was one who could mould hearts in this way. In the
beginning, I only found him to be a leader who worked differently. But
later, I realised that he was an image of love, who existed in all three
roles of mother, father and guru for his swayamsevaks.”
Guruji was deeply influenced by Hedgewar’s beliefs that while rousing
speeches can give us short-term benefits, in the long term, the work of
nation-building wasn’t possible without showing humility in speech. So, it
is our duty to work for the nation by exercising a strict control over what
we say and keeping intact a tenderness of heart and mind.
Guruji was also influenced by Sri Aurobindo’s teaching that for the
creator of the universe, Ma Bhagwati, we must become virtuous souls who can
spread love and positivity. From this perspective, his nationalism wasn’t
one that had ego or tried to rule over people with the use of force.
It was a cultural nationalism imbued with spirituality. This nationalism
aimed at raising the self-confidence of its people, ushering them to become
the best version of themselves and taking India back to its days of glory,
when it was the global leader.
Guruji considered staying united and powerful to be in the interest of
His understanding of life was immersed in sound logic even as he
remained a steadfast idealist.
He believed in creating institutions based on the need of the hour and
rejected traditions based on superstitions and those that were devoid of
His views on patriarchy are reflected in the incident where his parents
told him that what would happen to their lineage if he renounces worldly
life despite being their only son.
To this, Guruji said that he didn’t believe in the end of family
dynasties. He said his aim was the welfare of the society.
Guruji rejected the Varna system as an outdated idea.
He was a large-hearted, fearless nationalist.
He believed the real worship of God was in human deeds.
He did not believe in religious and caste divides.
He believed that national unity and integrity lay in people respecting
the national mission, goals and cultural symbols.
India today, more than ever, needs to revisit Golwalkar and his
teachings to realise its full potential.
Q.1) With reference to the Supreme Court judgment on SC/ST Amendment Act
2018, consider the following statements: 1. Anticipatory bail can only be granted in cases where prima facie case is
not made out.
2. A preliminary inquiry is essential before lodging an FIR under the act.
Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) None of the above
Q.1) What lesson that we can learn from Golwalkar with regarding to the foremost
symbols of such a selfless life. Explain.