Unleashing the potential of urban India
Mains Paper 1: Society
Prelims level: Urbanisation
Mains level: UK's City deals models may guide reform in metropolitan governance
• The Global Metro Monitor 2018 reports that 36% of employment growth and 67%
of GDP growth were contributed by the 300 largest global metros, with those in
emerging economies outperforming those in advanced economies.
The relevance of metropolitan cities
• Metropolitan areas concentrate and accelerate wealth as these are
agglomerations of scale that concentrate higher-level economic functions.
• Nine Indian metros feature in the top 150 ranks of the economic performance
• By 2030, India will have 71 metropolitan cities, of which seven would have
a population of more than 10 million.
• Clearly metropolises are going to be a key feature of India’s urbanisation
and will play a crucial role in fuelling growth.
About the constitutional provisions regarding metropolis
• Article 243P(c) of the Constitution defines ‘metropolitan areas’ as those
having “population of ten lakhs [a million] or more, comprised in one or more
districts and consisting of two or more municipalities/panchayats/ other
contiguous areas, specified by the governor through public notification to be a
• It recognises metropolitan areas as multi-municipal and multi-district
entities. It mandates the formation of a Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC)
for preparing draft development plans, considering common interests between
local authorities, objectives and priorities set by Central and State
governments, and investments likely to be made in the area by various agencies.
• To ensure the democratic character of the MPC, it is mandated that at least
two-thirds of the members of the committee must be elected by and from among the
elected members of the municipalities and chairpersons of the panchayats in the
metropolitan area, proportionate to the ratio of their respective populations.
The size and manner of filling such seats are left to the State’s discretion.
Key concerns with MPCs
• Janaagraha’s Annual Survey of India’s City-Systems (ASICS) 2018 found that
only nine out of 18 cities mandated to form MPCs have constituted them.
• Where constituted, their functionality is questionable, with the limited
role of local elected representatives raising further questions on democratic
• Thus, the provision for an MPC has not introduced robust governance of
metropolises, as the metropolises continue to be a collection of parastatals and
local bodies in an entirely fragmented architecture.
The City Deals’ model of UK
• The U.K. has rolled out ‘City Deals’, an agreement between the Union
government and a city economic region, modelled on a ‘competition policy style’
• The city economic region is represented by a ‘combined authority’.
• This is a statutory body set up through national legislation that enables a
group of two or more councils to collaborate decisions, and which is steered by
a directly elected Mayor.
• This is to further democratise and incentivise local authorities to
collaborate and reduce fragmented governance, drive economic prosperity, job
• ‘City Deals’ move from budget silos and promote ‘economic growth budget’
Examples from other countries
• The U.K. has established nine such combined authorities. Australia adopted
a regional governance model along these lines in 2016 and has signed four City
Deals till date. Meanwhile, China is envisioning 19 seamlessly connected super
• India, however, is yet to begin the discourse on a governance framework for
the future of its metropolises.
• It is yet to recognise that disaster management, mobility, housing, climate
change, etc. transcend municipal boundaries and require regional-level
• The World Bank notes that despite the emergence of smaller towns, the
underlying character of India’s urbanisation is “metropolitan”, with towns
emerging within the proximity of existing cities.
• It is time India envisions the opportunities and challenges from a ‘city’
level to ‘city-region’ level.
• The Central government must create a platform to build consensus among
• Perhaps, the Greater Bengaluru Governance Bill, 2018, drafted by the Expert
Committee for Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike Restructuring, could offer
• It proposes for a Greater Bengaluru Authority headed by a directly elected
Mayor, responsible for the overall planning of Greater Bengaluru with powers for
inter-agency coordination and administration of major infrastructural projects
across the urban local bodies within the area. However, this Bill is yet to see
the light of day.
Q.1) Which of the following are the tributaries of Bhima River?
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.1) How India could learn from the U.K.’s model of City Deals? Explain.