The significance of the term ‘secular’
Mains Paper 1: Society
Prelims level: Not much
Mains level: Evolution of the concept secularism
- What value is added by the term ‘secular’ to liberal democracies, i.e.
states that safeguard liberties of individuals and political freedoms of
- For some scholars, virtually nothing. Why? Because, while secularism is
against discrimination only on the basis of religion, a ‘liberal democracy’
is against all forms of discrimination. The term ‘liberal democracy’
- This is a fashionable view in Europe. Even some Indian scholars argue
for the sufficiency of Articles 14-16 and 19 of the Constitution.
Discrimination and recognition:
- The word ‘secular’ is important for those who claim the sufficiency of
‘liberal democracy’ must think again.
- True, their claim has had some validity in Europe, but it is losing
relevance there too. But in places like India, it is a virtual non-starter.
- Why? Let us first get a handle on Europe’s specificity.
- Secular states did not emerge in Western Europe in the immediate
aftermath of the religious wars.
- These wars were stopped by the establishment not of a secular but a
confessional state in which people were forced to embrace the religion of
- Those who did not comply faced death or expulsion. Every European
society from then on became religiously homogenous — England became
Anglican; Scandinavia, Lutheran; France, Catholic.
- Over time some dissenting groups were tolerated, but not without paying
a price for their dissent.
- When the general ethos in Western Europe witnessed the further decline
of Christianity, the term ‘secular’ found itself linked to a humanist world
view for which religion, whatever its private benefits, was potentially a
- While becoming increasingly less salient, it was etched in the bitter
collective memory of these societies as the source of discord from which
they had mercifully escaped.
- A religion, already on the defensive, faced greater devaluation and
marginalisation. No one wanted religion-grounded recognition.
- With this, the idea of separation of state and religion lost its
normative value further.
- These liberal states, where religion was no longer significant, granted
formal equality to all citizens and called themselves liberal democratic.
Why use a specific term?
- The point can be made differently. Why lump together all forms of
discrimination and oppression under the same general term?
- If the term ‘secular’ focuses on one specific kind of domination, why
not to use it? Isn’t de-cluttering our world and helping us focus on
particular features an important function of all concepts?
- Why not call a flower ‘red’ when you have a distinguishing word for it?
What point would be served by simply calling it coloured?
- To be sure, in some contexts, this might be sufficient. For example, if
our purpose is to differentiate it from all white flowers the use of the
term ‘coloured’ is adequate but not if one coloured flower is to be
distinguished from another.
- Likewise, ‘secular’ helps focus on institutionalised religious
domination, to demarcate it from other kinds of domination based on class,
gender, ethnicity, etc. ‘Secularism’ implores us to resist it.
- Here we cannot follow European habits but must embrace both liberal
democracy and a form of secularism that fights religion-based
- Indeed, even Europe is changing. After the migration of workers from
former colonies, Europe’s new religious diversity has brought religion-based
recognition to the fore.
- Therefore, in Europe too demands for an impartial secular state (in the
Indian sense) will become louder.
Q.1) With reference to the rainfall in India, consider the following
1. Rainfall is excess when it is 20-59% higher than normal for the period,
and large excess when it is over 60% higher than normal.
2. Mizoram recorded the highest departure, at 296% above normal between December
2019 and January 2020.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) None of the above
Q.1) Describe the significance of the word secularism. Do you think it
has only enables to focus on religion-based discrimination and misrecognition?