Why appeals are stuck at WTO, how India
will be hit if process breaks down (Indian Express)
Mains Paper 2: International Relation
Prelims level: WTO’s Appellate Body
Mains level: Important international organisation and their significance
- The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) dispute settlement mechanism is
going through a “crisis”: the body is struggling to appoint new members to
its understaffed Appellate Body that hears appeals in trade.
- Unless the issue is resolved, the body could become defunct, and
countries locked in international trade disputes will be left with no forum
- Over 20 developing countries met in New Delhi last week to discuss ways
to prevent the WTO’s dispute resolution system from collapsing due to the
logjam in these appointments.
Importance of the WTO’s Appellate Body
- The Appellate Body, set up in 1995, is a standing committee of seven
members that presides over appeals against judgments passed in trade-related
disputes brought by WTO members.
- With over 500 international disputes brought to the WTO and over 350
rulings issued since 1995, the organisation’s dispute settlement mechanism
is one of the most active in the world, and the Appellate Body is the
highest authority in these matters.
- Countries involved in a dispute over measures purported to break a WTO
agreement or obligation can approach the Appellate Body if they feel the
report of the panel set up to examine the issue needs to be reviewed on
points of law.
- Existing evidence is not re-examined; legal interpretations are
- The direct participant in 54 disputes, and has been involved in 158 as a
- The Appellate Body can uphold, modify, or reverse the legal findings of
the panel that heard the dispute. Countries on either or both sides of the
dispute can appeal.
- The WTO’s dispute settlement procedure is seen as being vital to
ensuring smooth international trade flows. The Appellate Body has so far
issued 152 reports. The reports, once adopted by the WTO’s disputes
settlement body, are final and binding on the parties.
Problem in the WTO Appellate Body
- Over the last two years, the membership of the body has dwindled to just
three persons instead of the required seven.
- This is because the United States, which believes the WTO is biased
against it, has been blocking appointments of new members and reappointments
of some members who have completed their four-year tenures. Two members will
complete their tenures in December this year, leaving the body with just one
- At least three people are required to preside over an appeal, and if new
members are not appointed to replace the two retiring ones, the body will
cease to be relevant. Between 1995 and 2014, around 68% of the 201 panel
reports adopted were appealed.
- While the US is directly involved in more disputes than other WTO member
countries, several countries—including India—enter disputes as third
- India has so far been a direct participant in 54 disputes, and has been
involved in 158 as a third party.
- The understaffed appeals body has been unable to stick to its 2-3 month
deadline for appeals filed in the last few years, and the backlog of cases
has prevented it from initiating proceedings in appeals that have been filed
in the last year. The three members have been proceeding on all appeals
filed since October 1, 2018.
- In February 2019, the body said it would be unable to staff an appeal in
a dispute between Japan and India over certain safeguard measures that India
had imposed on imports of iron and steel products. The panel had found that
India had acted “inconsistently” with some WTO agreements, and India had
notified the Dispute Settlement Body of its decision to appeal certain
issues of law and legal interpretations in December 2018.
- The body has so far been unable to review at least 10 appeals that have
been filed since July 2018.
What can happen if this situation is not addressed in time?
- With the Appellate Body unable to review new applications, there is
already great uncertainty over the WTO’s dispute settlement process. If the
body is declared non-functional in December, countries may be compelled to
implement rulings by the panel even if they feel that gross errors have been
- Should such a country refuse to comply with the order of the panel on
the ground that it has no avenue for appeal, it will run the risk of facing
arbitration proceedings initiated by the other party in the dispute.
- This does not bode well for India, which is facing a rising number of
dispute cases, especially on agricultural products. In the last four months
alone, four cases have been brought to the WTO against India’s alleged
support measures for its sugar and sugarcane producers.
- Also, the overall weakening of the WTO framework could have the effect
of undoing over two decades of efforts to avoid protectionism in global
trade. This is a major concern currently, as trade tensions, for example
between the US and China and the US and India, are on the rise.
- While new appointments to the Appellate Body are usually made by a
consensus of WTO members, there is a provision for voting where a consensus
is not possible.
- The group of 17 least developed and developing countries, including
India, that have committed to working together to end the impasse at the
Appellate Body can submit or support a proposal to this effect, and try to
get new members on the Appellate Body by a majority vote.
- This, however, may be an option of the last resort, as all countries
fear unilateral measures by the US as a consequence of directly opposing its
Q.1) Operation Cactus was a historical event in Indian diplomacy. In which
of the following countries Operation Cactus was done?
Q.1) What is the WTO’s Appellate Body? Why it is so important? What are
the problems in the WTO Appellate Body?