Mains Paper 3: Agriculture
Prelims level: Monsoon
Mains level: Preparedness for monsoon
As India awaits the arrival of the annual summer monsoon, hopes are
particularly high for normal rainfall that is so vital for agriculture, the
health of forests, rivers and wetlands.
The India Meteorological Department has forecast normal rainfall of 96%
of the long period average of 89 cm rain, with an onset date in the first
week of June in Kerala. It has also signalled a significant possibility of a
Importance of monsoon
The monsoon bounty is crucial for the 60% of gross cropped area in
farming that is rain-fed, and represents, in the assessment of the National
Commission on Farmers, 45% of agricultural output.
Given the erratic patterns of rainfall witnessed over the past few
decades and their possible connection to atmospheric changes caused by a
variety of pollutants, the distribution of monsoon 2019 will add to the
The southwest monsoon is a determinant of India’s overall prosperity,
and sustained efforts to make the best use of rainfall are absolutely
important for farms, cities and industry.
Area of Concern
Considering that there has been a 52% decline in groundwater levels
based on tests conducted last year over the previous decadal average, State
governments should have pursued the setting up of new recharging wells and
made improvements to existing ones on a war footing.
They also have lagged in building structures to harvest surface water
and helping farmers raise the efficiency of irrigation.
The approach to the farming sector, however, has been influenced more by
the imperatives of an election year, and the Centre’s biggest intervention
was to announce a cash handout to specified categories of small farmers.
Effects of Industrial Pollution
A normal summer monsoon over the subcontinent brings widespread
prosperity, but does not guarantee a uniform spread.
This, as scientists point out, may be due to the effect of particulates
released through various industrial and agricultural processes.
Some of these aerosols suppress the rainfall and disperse it across the
land, causing long breaks in precipitation, while others absorb heat and
lead to a convection phenomenon that increases rainfall in some places.
Such evidence points to the need for India to clean up its act on rising
industrial emissions, and burning of fossil fuels and biomass in order to
improve the stability of the monsoon.
An equally key area of concern is freshwater availability for
households, which, NITI Aayog says, account for 4% of available supplies,
besides 12% used by industry.
Urbanisation trends and the severe water stress that residents
experience underscore the need for mandatory rainwater harvesting policies
and augmented efforts by States to preserve surface water by building new
Yet, governments are adopting a commodity approach to the vital
resource, displaying deplorable indifference to the pollution and loss of
rivers, wetlands and lakes that hold precious waters. This is no way to
treat a life-giving resource.