What is altruistic surrogacy?
Mains Paper 1: Governance
Prelims level: Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill
Mains level: Significance and impacts of the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill
- According to the new Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, approved by the
Lok Sabha last week, it includes contracting a ‘close relative’ as a
surrogate by a heterosexual married couple who have been childless for five
years of their marriage.
- This line separates altruism from the commercial tinge that
surrogacy carries with it.
Surrogacy regulation in other countries
- In the U.K., laws on surrogacy allow only altruistic arrangements
where the surrogate can be paid only ‘reasonable expenses’.
- The fluidity in defining reasonable expenses means that this
should ideally include payment for medical treatment, and in-vitro
fertilisation (IVF) but may include other ‘expenses’.
- In most of Australia, altruistic surrogacy entails restricted in
different parts of the world, varying levels of legal restrictions, or
complete bans are practised pre-approved payments to the surrogate,
including for diet during the pregnancy, and/or for the medical treatment.
- However, altruism also entails the provision that the surrogate is
the legal mother of the child, which can be transferred to the parents
through a legal process, including adoption.
- In many countries in Europe, the act of gestation defines
motherhood, even though the egg used for the pregnancy through IVF may
belong to the couple entering the arrangement.
Role of the surrogate
- As per the new Surrogacy Bill, the surrogate in India continues to
fulfill her role as a gestate.
- In keeping with the insistence on gestational surrogacy, which
makes the use of IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies mandatory.
- The current Bill is faithful to the Indian Council of Medical
Research’s Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2010.
- The latter has governed the practice of surrogacy till the
Surrogacy Bill of 2016 banning commercial surrogacy comes into effect.
- Motherhood did not belong to the surrogate; she was trained to
think of herself as a gestate, as research by Amrita Pande suggests.
- The relinquishment of the child was an absolutely essential clause
within the draft bills on commercial surrogacy, and in practice in the
Commercial surrogacy situation in India
- The commercial surrogacy arrangement in India was an exchange of
money for services.
- The clinics and surrogacy agents went to great lengths to
transform the commercial element of the surrogacy arrangement, primarily
identified as the surrogate’s fees, into gift-giving, and sacrifice.
- The motherhood could be for sale is a matter of distress and
- The altruistic surrogacy is not very different from its opposite
- Unlike the U.K., altruism in India is being defined through the
tie of kinship, not through the exchange of payment for ‘services rendered’.
- Here, kinship and family hide the commercial element entailed in
seeking a surrogate from among close relatives.
- Thus, much of the criticism against the Surrogacy Bill in
Parliament points toward the lack of definition that the category of the
‘close relative’ carries.
- The Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA), 1994, as a
parallel to the conversation on altruism and its linkages with commercial
- The Act prescribes that organ donors are allowed to donate their
organs before death only to ‘near relatives’.
- Donating organs to ‘strangers’ or not near relatives before death
is not allowed, and may be approved of only through the authorisation
- The category of the ‘near relative’ appears again in a similar
vein to the ‘close relative’.
- But unlike the Surrogacy Bill, the THOA identifies ‘near
relatives’ as ‘spouse, son, daughter, father, mother, brother or sister’.
- It’s a closed group of relatives within the structure of the
nuclear family unit — members who may not be eligible to be surrogates,
- Despite exempting gay couples, single men and women, and live-in
couples from seeking surrogacy, not clearly defining the regulative
mechanisms within altruistic surrogacy.
- The very regressive approval for couples with differently-abled
children to opt for surrogacy, the Bill does seek certain important changes.
- The push towards adoption is very welcome, as is the waiting
period of five years.
- The popularity of IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies
stems from a problematic conceptualisation of infertility itself, pushing
couples to opt for invasive intervention within a year of unprotected
- Now it is to go back to understanding why and how the desire for
children is socially mediated to help couples seeking surrogates, and vice
Q.1) In vitro fertilisation is similar to
1. Test tube baby programme
3. Reverse sterilization
Select the correct answer using the codes below.
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 3 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3 only
Q.1) What is an altruistic surrogacy arrangement?
Q.2) How is an act of selflessness translated into thinking about a pregnancy
that is aimed towards relinquishing the child to a close relative?