National well-being and the counts that matter (The Hindu)
Mains Paper 2: Governance
Prelims level: Adolescent pregnancy
Mains level: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education
- India’s crimes data recording system is not built to capture subtleties; hence we do not know what proportion of pregnancies in India start off without the consent of the woman.
- Measuring and tracking matters of import is critical to individual, community as well as national well-being.
Parameters that are valuable:
- What is valuable is measured frequently, at different life stages, and at disaggregated levels: birthweights; the heights and weights of our children when they enter school; school completion rates; perhaps the age, height and weight of a first-time pregnant woman; and most definitely, the number of women in the formal workforce who are on a par with men in terms of earning.
- Underage marriage of girls must become history.
- Ensuring secondary school completion of every child, especially girls in rural areas, has far-reaching impact, and needs to be pursued single-mindedly.
- Provisioning separate, functional toilets and sanitary pads for girls, and teaching boys biology and gender differences (of their own and female) are key enablers to ensuring gender parity in school completion rates.
- Teaching school-leaving girls and boys the notion of consent, and also the basics of contraception, will ensure that the start of every pregnancy will be a desired and happy one.
Births in the country:
- Not every pregnancy ends up in a live birth — evocatively captured by the six-word allegedly Hemingway novel: “For sale: baby shoes, never worn”.
- A desired pregnancy is to be supported by a fully functional health-care system, able to anticipate complications before time and facilitating a safe delivery.
- Current stillbirth numbers in India are hard to pin down, but after accounting for background losses and abortions, there still remains a distressingly large number of still births, sometimes mis-recorded as early neonatal deaths.
- Despite the trend towards nuclear families, pregnancies in India still are familial events — outcomes are eagerly anticipated by more than just the parents, and stillbirths are a rude end to many fond wishes.
- A young, short and under-schooled woman is more likely to have a bad pregnancy outcome, or, a smaller than expected baby.
- A birth weight is much more than a number — it is a complex outcome, telling of how well the woman and her family eats, her status among them, and also of any particular condition that the individual mother or newborn child has.
- Tracking average birthweights by district and subdistrict on a regular basis is a fair proxy for food security, the status of women and the delivery of primary health care.
- For a nation with plans to assign digital health IDs to everyone, this is not a tall ask — what is additionally required is the making of this moving average data live and visible to the people and their government.
- It should also put to rest all debate about whether some Indians are born more equal than others.
- A good start is a great advantage, but easily squanderedif subsequent growth and development are blightedby the lack of adequate nutrition, first exclusively from the mother’s breast, then through locally available weaning and complementary foods; and repeated bouts of vaccine preventable or easily treatable illnesses.
- Parental hopes of a child growing up, going to school and becoming successful hit a major hurdle if the height-weight proportions at age five are not normal.
- Ensuring this marker is recorded for every child who enters school will also allow for a correlation with birthweights at the district level — giving a better understanding of multi-dimensional property.
- If India is to be truly taking advantage of its large birth cohort in the form of a demographic dividend, then the correlate of birthweight and five-year height-weight needs to be reviewed at the highest political levels regularly.
- It reflects the physical and cognitive nurture of human capital that the country can bank on for its future.
- Every child born in India is to be considered a ratna – a jewel and handled as such; some of them will go on to get the formal Bharat Ratna tag eventually.
- Schooling is a socio-economic and gender parity springboard if school completion rates show no gender, rural-urban or parental income divides.
- Consequently, India may not only bring down its maternal mortality ratios but also improve neonatal and under five mortality rates, through delayed marriages and exercising of reproductive choices by its empowered young women.
- Grading cognitively ill-equipped or ill-taught children on standardised tests is as much a waste of effort as letting large numbers of young people graduate through courses which are hopelessly out of sync with the expectations of the job interview board.
- The recently unveiled new education policy seeks to remedy this. It will be a while before we can measure any of the talked about, and hopefully intended, outputs or impact of this policy.
- Unimaginative teaching of anaemic children is a double whammy, partially addressed through protein rich mid-day meals.
- Deworming, school toilets, sanitary pads and bicycles for girls are progressive policy steps in the right direction; adding remedial training and affirmative feedback for teachers will be transformative.
- With better cognitive capacities and supportive environment, the stress of learning reduces, and outcomes improve.
- Improved learning should translate into better completion rates at post-secondary and baccalaureate levels but need not necessarily correspond to universal, meaningful employment.
- It is for the government and the corporate world to make opportunities and workplaces happen, irrespective of their gender.
- Right economic stimuli, anticipating potential workplace disruptions, supporting reskilling and retraining, and decriminalising entrepreneurial failure will go a long way in eliminating work and livelihood-related anxieties making their way back home as domestic violence.
- As a society, we need to understand and make leewayfor failure, and not stigmatise it, whether at school in early childhood, during miscarriages of pregnancies, or when career and business decisions go awry.
- Stigma erodes self-worth and kills silently.
Timely data helps:
- Together, these measurements will tell us far more about where we are, and where we as a nation will go.
- The tools to get these measurements exist; we just have to see them in real time to be able to take corrective actions where needed.
- Public health is about people, their continued well-being, and not just about controlling disease outbreaks.
- Data helps; timely, disaggregated, multidimensional data helps immensely in ensuring collective well-being, physical, mental and social.
- People are India’s greatest possession and will remain so for the conceivable future, provided they are in a state of well-being.
- An ill-educated, anxious population is a tinderbox, capable of self-harm as well as being kindling for malice-driven mobilisation.
- Addressing this requires a whole of life and whole of society approach, and measuring the outcomes that matter, regularly.
Q.1)With reference to Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) draft standard for drinking water supply, consider the following statements:
1. It states that after treatment the drinking water should conform to the Indian Standard (IS) 10500 developed by the BIS.
2. The IS 10500 outlines the acceptable limit of various substances in drinking water, including heavy metals such as arsenic, and other parameters like the pH value of water, its turbidity, the total dissolved solids in it, and the colour and odour.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q.1) What are the key reasons behind adolescent pregnancy in India? Suggest steps that can be taken to tackle the problem.