End this long trauma
Mains Paper 2: Sopcial Justice
Prelims level: Habitual Offenders Act
Mains level: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the
Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies
constituted for the
protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections
- Fifteen crore individuals, better known as the Denotified Tribes (DNT)
of India, continue to be considered ‘criminal by birth’.
- The term, ‘De-notified and Nomadic Tribes’, can be traced to the
Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) of 1871.
- The colonial government notified nearly 200 tribal communities to
be hereditary criminals, cementing their societal identity as outcasts and
subjecting them to constant harassment by the administration.
- After India gained Independence, these tribes were ‘de-notified’
from the list of Criminal Tribes, and, hence, the term.
- Several reasons can be ascribed to state-sanctioned stigmatisation
of the DNTs in India under British rule.
- It including the strategy to identify their allies and at the same
time, subdue and monitor activities of rebellious tribal communities in
- The CTA allowed for close supervision and control over the
mobility of the tribes which were notified by the provincial governments.
- The Act was amended in 1897, 1908 and 1911 to give sweeping powers
to the authorities, some as draconian as allowing the state to remove any
child of the age of six and above from its ‘criminal’ parents.
- By 1924, certain provisions were amended, and the Act was finally
applicable to the whole of British India.
- Along with the introduction of laws such as the Forest Acts and
the Salt Tax Act, the British threw a noose around the the lives of DNTs
using stringent regulations.
Habitual Offenders Act
- It is only in independent India that the need was felt to shift
the collective burden of criminality to the individual, which led to the CTA
being repealed and the Habitual Offenders Act (HOA) being enacted in various
- The HOA Model Bill as proposed by the Union Government then stands
enforced in 10 States across the country, having been enacted in many more.
- The HOA functioned as a mere extension of the CTA. Nomadic and
semi-nomadic communities continued to face harassment at the hands of law
- The mere repeal of the CTA could not change the mindset of
government officials or members of society.
- The fact is that even in the 21st century, DNTs continue to face
ostracisation by society at large.
- Their centuries-old tradition of constant movement, they often do
not possess any residential proof, which leaves them out of the majority of
the government’s developmental schemes.
- Those deemed eligible for such schemes were randomly grouped under
the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or Other Backward Classes categories.
As a result, most members of the DNTs continue to be out of the orbit of
steps being taken to end discrimination.
A chance to make amends
- The first National Commission for Denotified, Nomadic and
Semi-nomadic Tribes (NCDNT) was constituted in 2003, and reconstituted two
years later under the chairpersonship of Balkrishna Renke, which submitted
its report in 2008.
- The recommendations found an echo in the Idate Commission,
constituted with the similar mandate in 2015, and currently withholding
public release of its report.
- It denied funding by the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment in fulfilling its mandate of carrying out survey and field
validation work, the Idate Commission Report lacks the scientific data
necessary to introduce reforms to address the plight of DNTs.
- The NCDNT report clearly recommends repealing the various HOAs.
- This has also been the constant refrain of community leaders,
representatives and civil society organisations as the Act still casts its
shadow of the state on communities.
- The onus is thus upon us, lawmakers at the helm of democratic
institutions that govern the country, to finally bring down the curtains on
this age-old, state-sanctioned stigmatisation, and act upon the demands put
forth by the DNTs.
- A mere repeal of the law will not address their need for
establishing society-wide changes to gain access to
- Thus, the repeal of the HOA has to be accompanied by a slew of
legal reforms to address the multitude of issues DNT communities face.
- Their unique lifestyle requires positive affirmation and
development policies that cater to their long-standing and overlooked needs.
- It should be the duty of the government to be proactive and reach
out to the DNTs since the latter would understandably refrain from seeking
- As the sun sets on the 16th Lok Sabha, let us ensure that it also
marks an end to the oppression of the nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of
Q.1) Consider the following statements about The Criminal Tribes Act (CTA)
A. Every member of the notified community was forced to register
himself/herself at the local police station and had to give ‘Hazri’ (attendance)
at a specified time of the day
B. Their movements were curtailed. They could not shift their residence at will
and had to take proper permission before any travel or movement.
C. Severe punishments were put in place for breaking these rules.
D. The local police could easily round up any member of the community upon mere
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2,3 and 4
Q.1) Assess the implementation of Habitual Offenders Act, which has only ended
up re-stigmatising marginalised communities.