(Paper) Explain Direct and Indirect Speech (English)

Explain Direct and Indirect Speech



Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct Speech:- the original speaker's exact words are repeated.
Indirect Speech or Reported Speech:- When the original speaker's words are reproduced by another.

Rules:-
I. Changes in persons:
First persons (I/We) and second persons (you/your) changed into third persons

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
I and You He or She
You and We They
Me and You  Him or Her
You and Us  Them
Your and My  His or Her
Your and Our  Their
Mine and Yours  His or Hers
Yours and Ours  Theirs

 


II. Changes in verb tenses:-
If the reporting verb and direct speech is in the 'Present Tense' there is no corresponding change in the direct speech when if is reported.
If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Present Tense' then the latter should be correspondingly changed into 'Past Tense' when it is reported.


If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Present Continuous Tense' then the latter should be correspondingly changed into 'Past Continuous Tense' when it is reported.


If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Present Perfect Tense' then the latter should be correspondingly changed into 'Past Perfect Tense'.


If the reporting verb is in 'Past Tense' and the direct speech is in the 'Present Perfect Continuous ' then the latter should be   correspondingly changed into 'Past Perfect Continuous' when it is reported.

If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Past Tense' then the latter should be correspondingly changed into 'Past Perfect Tense' when it is reported , but if the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is also in the 'Past Tense' which denotes historical event there is no corresponding change. 


If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Past Continuous Tense' then the latter should be correspondingly changed into 'Past Perfect Continuous Tense' when it is reported.

 If the reporting verb is in the 'Past Tense' and direct speech is in the 'Past Perfect Tense' then there is no corresponding change when it is reported.Verbs are not changed in the case of Universal or general truth. 

 

III. Changes in words:- 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
This  That
These Those
Here  There
Now  Then
Today  That day
Tonight  That night
Yesterday  The previous day
The day before yesterday  Two days before
Tomorrow  The next day
Next week  The following week
A year ago  A year before
Thus  So

 

IV. Changing statement sentence into Reported speech:-
In an assertive sentence, said/told is generally used as the reporting verb. ('said' to becomes 'told'). 'that' is used as the
reporting conjunction.


V. Interrogative sentence:-
In an interrogative sentence, asked or enquired is used as the reporting verb. Reporting conjunction is not used. If the question begins with 'who, whom, whose, what, which, when,where, how and why' no other connective is used to join it with the Reporting verb. No need to question mark at the end. If the question in the direct speech begins with an auxiliary verb (do, does, did, has, have, had, is, am, are, was, were, can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, ought to) the connective if/whether should be used in the reported speech.


VI. Imperative sentence:-
In imperative sentences requested, commanded, ordered etc are used as reporting verbs. Sometime 'told' is used. The initial verb in the quotation is changed into 'to-infinitive'. It should not be changed into past tense.


VII. Exclamatory sentences:-
In exclamatory sentences in indirect speech the word commonly used are exclaimed, wished, prayed, confessed, applauded, cried out etc. The phrases with sorrow, with regret, with joy are also added according to the context. Exclamations are first turned into statements and then reported. 'That' is used as connective.


VIII. Mixed sentences:-
When statements, commands, requests, questions etc. are mixed, an appropriate reporting verb for each is used. When two or three statements are reported, me may use 'pointed out that, remarked that or added that etc and the connective 'and or but' may be used according to the sense.

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