General Studies Model Test Paper-1 for IAS Mains Exam - 2013

General Studies Model Test Paper-1 for IAS Mains Exam - 2013

1. Examine the contributions of India to the growth of science and technology in ancient times. (10 marks, 200 words)

Indians in ancient times made significant contributions to the knowledge of medicine, mathematics and astronomy, metallurgy, boat-building etc. It is evident from a number of books written on these subjects and their translations in Arabic, Persian and other languages. In medicine, the most authoritative text is Charak’s Charaksamhita which gives scientific explanations to the cause of and remedies for different diseases.

The manuscript found in western china contains a part of it. Another text is Sushruta’s Sushruta-samhita which refers to different types of surgical instruments and surgeons including plastic surgeries. It was translated as kitab-i-susrud in Arabic in the 9th century.In the fields of maths and astronomy, two most important names are Aryabhatta and Bhaskaracharya. Aryabhatt’s Aryabhattiyam covers algebra, arithmetic, trigonometry, fractions, equations and a table of sine. It also refers to pie (Π). Aryabhatt’s work was greatly used in Arabic world and is cited by Al-khwarizmi and Al-beruni.

 His discovery of zero and decimal system revolutionised the system of mathematical calculations all over the medieval world. He is also credited with the discovery of the concept that Earth moves on its axis and this explains the cause of eclipses. Bhaskaracharya is regarded as a pioneer in differential calculus which was later adopted by Leibniz and Newton. His treatise Lilavati, a part of Siddhanta Shiromani, refers to simple methods of solving mathematical calculations and was translated into Persian by Faizi during Akbar’s reign. In metallurgy, the iron pillar at Delhi is a standing example of ancient India’s iron making technology.

The Arab scholar, Al-idrisi says that Indian swords were known for their sharpness and were in great demand in the west. Bhoja’s Yuktikalptaru deals with the construction of different types of boats meant for inland water ways as well as high seas. The compass, known as Matsya yantra is also believed to have been an Indian invention and its role in the growth and navigation all over the world is well known.

2. How far is it correct to describe Shahjehan’s reign as the golden age of Mughal architecture? (10 marks, 200 words)

The Mughal architecture represents an amalgam of India as well as Persian and Turkish traditions and is remarkably symmetrical and ornamental in nature. It first developed under Akbar and reached the highest level of perfection during the reign of Shahjehan. Akbar made extensive use of red sandstone for his buildings whereas Shahjehan considered white marbles as better building material.

As against the sturdy and plain constructions of Akbar, Shahjehan’s buildings are highly delicate and ornamental. Shahjehan’s buildings are full of pietra dura and beautiful carvings in marble. The archs became more foliated, the domes became bulbous. Shahjehan even demolished some of Akbar’s simple brick sandstone structures in Agra fort and replaced them with magnificent marble buildings. But the most fabulous building of his period is the Taj Mahal. It is a logical culmination of the Persian Charbagh style of garden tomb with pathways, water channels and garden on four sides.

 The earliest example of it in India is the Humayun’s tomb in Delhi. It’s soaring dome, black inscriptions against the white marble background and jaali, the marble lattice work are the chief features. Among other monuments of Shahjehan is the city of Shahjehanabad which is one of the most systematically planned towns in the medieval period with proper laid out fort, markets, roads, sarais and hydraulic water pumping system.

3. Communalism and Nationalism in India were the outcome of British Imperialism. - Discuss. (10 marks, 200 words)

The policy of divide and rule was inaugurated right in the days of East India Company when the British were establishing themselves as rulers of India. Due to the economic backwardness of India and rampant unemployment, there was ample scope for the colonial government to use concessions, favors and reservations to fuel communal and separatist tendencies.

 Later on this became responsible for the division of the country into India and Pakistan. The sense of being oppressed under colonial rule provided a shared bond that tied different groups together. Each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently. Their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. Several other causes also contributed towards the rise and growth of Nationalism. One set of laws of British Government across several regions led to political and administrative unity. This strengthened the concept of citizenship and one nation among Indians.

4. Answer the following:
(a) Gandhi – Irwin pact was an unconditional surrender by Gandhi. Evaluate.(5 marks, 100 words)

The pact was signed between the Viceroy representing the British Indian Government and Gandhi representing Indian people in Delhi in February 1931. Terms agreed to by Irwin were

1) Immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted of violence
2) Lenient treatment of all government servants who had resigned
3) Right to make salt for personal consumption
4) Right to peaceful picketing
5) Withdrawal of emergency ordinances

Gandhi on his behalf agreed to suspend civil disobedience movement and participate in next round table conference.

The pact was criticized by many as surrender by Gandhi on the grounds of
a) refusal for public inquiry into police excesses, and
b) refusal to commute Bhagat Singh and his comrades death to life sentence.

However the pact cannot be viewed as unconditional surrender by Gandhi because
1) He agreed to suspend Civil disobedience movement because mass movements are necessarily short lived and capacity of masses to make sacrifices is limited.
2) Signs of exhaustion were seen especially among merchants and shopkeepers who were enthusiastic participants.
Gandhijis decision was based on logic and should not be viewed as surrender and most of demands were met by Irwin excluding some.

(b) Round Table conferences were basically stage shows in London by supporters of British rule. Comment. (5 marks, 100 words)

Round table conferences were the first high level talks arranged between the British and Indians as equals to decide future course of Constitutional reforms in India. First round table conference was boycotted by Congress and attended only by Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha and the princes. Every delegate reiterated that a constitutional discussion without the Congress was meaningless. Second round table conference: Congress agreed to attend it after Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Right wing led by Churchill opposed British Government negotiating with Congress on an equal basis.

 The Government failed to concede basic Indian demand of freedom and this led to Gandhiji’s return and revival of Civil Disobedience movement. Third round table conference was just a nominal conference Congress refused to attend it (in fact it was not invited) and the Labor party also refused to attend it. The outcome was a white paper issued by Government and on the basis of this paper Government of India Act 1935 was to be passed. Hence the purpose of discussing constitutional reforms with Indians on equal basis was never fulfilled and Congress being main representative of India was never taken into consensus. Indian demands were barely met. Hence Round Table conferences were basically stage shows in London by supporters of British rule.

5. Suppression of mass movements gave provocation to Revolutionary Terrorism in Indian freedom struggle. -Discuss. (10 marks, 200 words)

The revolutionary terrorist movement was largely the outcome of the same set of causes which gave rise to the extremist wing in the national politics. The only difference was that the revolutionaries wanted quicker results and discounted the value of moderates and applying low grade pressure on the British. The revolutionaries believed that the British rule was destructive of all that is worthwhile in national life- political liberties, religious freedom, morality and Indian culture.

 Though the political philosophy of the revolutionary terrorists in different parts of India might have differed from one another, but their one common aim was freedom from the British rule. In order to suppress popular movements and counter widespread discontent among the masses the British used several measures like gagging the press and banning public assembly. This attitude flared the already existing extremist tendencies of the youth.

The political measures of the government during Curzon’s rule and subsequent repression directed against the nationalist movement were also greatly responsible for the terrorist activities. One was the education policy illustrated by the Universities Act, 1904. Curzon`s education reforms were obviously interpreted by the nationalists as an attempt to keep the educational institutions under tight imperial control. The second and most controversial reform measure was the Partition of Bengal in the name of improving the efficiency of the traditionally neglected Bengal province.

 Activities of the Terrorists The activities mainly comprised of political assassination, generally of unpopular officials, hoping thereby to strike terror in the bureaucracy and break its will. They also thought that a campaign of political assassination when carried out on a large scale would even create a favorable atmosphere for armed insurrection. Another method was to organize armed dacoities with a view to securing money from wealthy Indians and the government, which they could use for their work such as the establishment and operation of the secret groups, laboratories to make bombs, factories to forge arms. There also sprang up revolutionary groups which had a more extensive program such as the fomenting of mutinies in the army and agrarian riots.

6. Answer the following:
(a) Sardar Patel played a great role as a maker of modern India. - Comment. (5 marks, 100 words)

Sardar Patel was a visionary and played a major role in shaping modern India.
Some of his major contributions are:

  •  Role in Independence Movement: Played an active role in Kheda Satyagraha, Dandi Salt march, Quit India movement.

  •  Role in political integration of India: A fragmented land mass of 565 princely states. This arduous task of swiftly uniting all the princely states would not have been possible if not for Patel who personally met each prince for negotiations and convinced them to accede to India.

  •  Military Policies: During his tenure of being the home minister, Patel envisioned some policies to keep India secure and develop it overall.

  •  Role in Constitution: Patel had played a dominant and decisive role in the Constituent Assembly from day one and was the motivator for the team.

  •  His role in white revolution: The idea of co-operatives for milk industry was the brainchild of Patel which led to white revolution (headed by Dr. Kurien of Amul).
    Patel was instrumental in motivating farmers to join the movement so as to break the monopoly enjoyed by private players and place the power among hands of
    the farmers/producers. Hence Sardar Patel is considered as one of the architects of modern India.

(b) J. P. movement was an unconstitutional movement. - Discuss. (5 marks, 100 words)

Post 1971 war the nation faced many problems like steep price rise and rise in discontent among people. Law and order deteriorated further in 1974-75 strikes and popular demonstrations often turned violent. Jayaprakash Narayan gave a call for “Total Revolution”. The main justification of the JP movement was that it arose to end corruption in Indian politics.

Indira Gandhi justified her action of imposing emergency on the grounds of India’s stability, need to implement rapid economic development programme for the poor and warned against intervention and subversion from abroad to weaken India. JP was considered ideologically vague as his Total Revolution concepts were unclear. JP movement came to include communal Jansangh and Jamaat-i-Islami, the RSS and the extremist left Naxalite groups. This resulted in political character of the movement also undergoing a change. The agitational methods adopted and propagated by the JP Movement were extra constitutional and undemocratic.

Going beyond demonstrations in Bihar and Gujarat the tactic was to force the governments to resign and dissolve legislatures. Thus paralyzing individual government and forcing legislators to resign. There were attempts to incite army police and civil services to rebel. Thus it can be said that JP movement was an unconstitutional movement for the sheer reason of the means they adopted.

7. Napoleon was the son of revolution. – Comment. (10 marks, 200 words)

Napoleon’s rise owed everything to the French Revolution, to its ideals of liberty and equality, the meritocracy that lay at its roots, and the huge institutional changes that it wrought. For Napoleon the changes that were being made in the name of the French people opened the door to brilliant careers and rapid social advancement. In the early period of his career, Napoleon found the desire of the revolutionary authorities to pass sweeping measures to renew the fabric of the nation refreshing and energising.

He was a convinced believer in the benefits of meritocracy and applauded the boldness of the revolutionaries in abolishing nobility, selling church lands and reforming a society rooted in privilege. In print, he mocked the corruption of the old order and lambasted the privileged idleness of many members of the nobility. He did not emigrate; he continued to serve in the army; he took the oath of loyalty to the constitution of 1791. Root-and-branch reform in the army led in 1799 to full-blown conscription and the professional background and social configuration of the troops changed dramatically, and the army, for a few short years, became predominantly French as the government relied on its own people where, previously, it had bought soldiers from other states.

 Because of the high turnover of officers – both through heavy casualty rates in battle and as a result of resignations and emigration – promotion could come rapidly and at a very young age. Recognition was there to be won for those with flair and talent, and a new generation of officers, such as Napoleon Bonaparte, sieged the initiative.The Revolution demanded not only talent from its officers, but also political loyalty.

 The political leadership had had too many painful experiences with officers who proved untrustworthy, socially conservative, or whose loyalty was to the king or to the Catholic Church before it was to the French people. Napoleon who was trustworthy, loyal to the nationalistic cause, socially moderate and firm believer in meritocracy can thus be said to be the child of revolution.

8. Cold war after 1945 was basically the outcome of fear and provocative steps of U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. - Discuss. (10 marks, 200 words)

In 1945, the United States and Soviet Union were allies but within just a few years, wartime allies became mortal enemies, locked in a struggle—military, political, economic, ideological—to prevail in a new "Cold War." Causes of the Cold War after 1945:

  • American fear of communist attack

  •  Truman’s dislike of Stalin

  •  USSR’s fear of the American's atomic bomb

  •  USSR’s dislike of capitalism

  •  USSR’s actions in the Soviet zone of Germany

  •  America’s refusal to share nuclear secrets

  •  USSR’s expansion west into Eastern Europe + broken election promises

  •  USSR’s fear of American attack

  •  USSR’s need for a secure western border

  •  USSR’s aim of spreading world communism

  •  This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War

9. Fear of communism was the most important cause of aggressive nationalism in Europe. (10 marks, 200 words)

  •  The answer should clearly bring about the causes for World War II that rode on the fear of spread of communism in Italy, Germany and Spain.

  • The capitalist nations of Britain and France wanted to contain the spread of communism and thus they showed a policy of appeasement towards Germany and Italy. They did not want another Russia in the making.

  • Communist ideology was considered as a threat to the existing life and it was treated as an evil by the businessman, feudal lords in these countries and moreover all these countries that harboured an anti-communist feeling had their entire economy controlled by the state. The emphasis was on self sufficiency as it was important for the growth of the nation

  •  How this policy complemented the expansionist policy of Hitler leading to rise of a nationalistic feeling. He also envisaged a living space for all Germans across Europe and called it Lebensraum.

  •  His idea of pan-Germanism and elements of social welfare were already present in his policies to avoid any future clash with the community.

  •  Use some of the pacts signed by Germany to support the above arguments -
    1933 - Anglo German Treaty to allow Germany to maintain its Navy - A mark of
    appeasement policy by Britain towards Germany.

  • 1936 - Anti Commintern Pact between Germany and Japan.

10. Indira Gandhi’s era was one of turmoil as well as glory. - Critically analyse. (10 marks, 200 words)

Indira Gandhi, the third Prime Minister of India was a central figure of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi served from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984.


  •  Killing of democracy- Unnecessary declaration of emergency

  • Election irregularities

  •  Reduced role of cabinet- Authoritarian head

  •  Politicization of Judicial appointments

  •  Breaking up of Congress party and weakening of the organization

  •  Corruption

  •  Politicization of bureaucracy

  •  Economic losses of war

  •  Price rise

  •  Public unrest leading to movements like JP


  • 1971 war victory over Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh.

  •  Agreement with Soviet Union promising mutual assistance in the case of war

  •  Khalisthan movement problem solved.

  •  Brought poverty to focus - Garibi Hatao

  •  Nationalization of Banks

  •  Environmental Legislations

  •  Abolition of Privy Purse

  •  Green revolution

11. Nehru’s liberalism and faith towards China became the cause for the disaster of 1962. - Comment. (10 marks, 200 words)

  • Nehru as a Prime Minister had a towering personality and earned the status of an international statesman. Nehru's idealistic mind conjured a situation where might was not right and war had to been banished. He decided that India with its history of non-violence could play a leading role in international affairs.

  •  Nehru introduced the mantra of ‘Peaceful Co-existence’. With the signing of the Panchsheel Pact in 1954, Nehru believed that he had set a personal example in how international problems could be resolved in a peaceful manner. Through intensive diplomacy he sought to cement the friendly relations between India and


  •  Nehru anticipated an Indo-Chinese conflict much earlier than 1962 but decided to follow the policy of appeasement. Nehru was under the illusion that China would never go to war with India. China's intrusion into Ladakh in 1957 or its aggressive tone post Dalai Lama's asylum in India could not shake India out of its complacency. The tragedy was that Nehru, a man of peace, disliked war.

  •  It is argued that putting faith in personal diplomacy and rejecting war as an instrument of foreign policy became the cause of war in 1962. Foreign policy was Nehru's forte as well as obsession. He had staked his all on it and found it hard to recover after the Chinese humiliation knocked out the bottom of his policy.

12. How does mining of sand damage the ecosystem of rivers in India? (10 marks, 200 words)

Sand, is the soil of the river, providing and sustaining virtually all life that exists in the river itself. Along with gravels, it forms an intermediate zone between the surface water of the river and the ground water beneath. This intermediate zone is called hyporheic zone and performs critical functions:

1. Recharging the groundwater table far beyond the river basin by slowing down the flow of water in the river and allowing for percolation, not just downwards but laterally across large areas.

2. Sand being porous serves the function of buffering agricultural lands and towns from rising water levels during floods.

3. Harbouring unique fauna and micro – organisms that filter the water due to its physical, chemical and biological conditions.

The removal of sand – and – gravel layer of the river ecosystem is inhibiting the self- cleansing mechanism of the river, even as India’s rivers receive increasing loads of toxic and sewage wastes from the urban and rural areas.

13. Discuss the various surface application methods of irrigation used in India. (10 marks, 200 words)

In this method, water is applied to the crop by flooding it on the soil surface. This method requires proper land grading for the flow of water over the land surface. It is simple in layout and operation. The overall irrigation efficiency is low. The worldwide average irrigation in canal command areas shows overall efficiency of as low as 28%. It may result in water – logging, soil salinization besides the huge amount of water losses.

More than 95% of the irrigated area in India is under surface irrigation. Surface Irrigation method may be broadly classified as: (a) Border Method; (b) Furrow Method; (c) Check Basin. Border Method: Borders are formed by dividing the field into number of strips which are separated by ridges. The strips are generally levelled along the width but may or may not have slope along the length. An irrigation channel runs along the upper end of the borders. Furrow Method: The furrow irrigation is adaptable to a great variation in slope, crops and topography.

Close growing crops, on slopes and soils that develop crust after being wet, may be irrigated with small furrows which are called corrugations or rills. The main design parameters of Furrow are: longitudinal slope, inflow stream design, furrow spacing and furrow length. The longer furrows result in more percolation losses and less run – off, and result in greater economy in handling of farm equipment, turning of farm machinery and labour requirement and vice versa. Furrow spacing should be such that the lateral water movement of the moisture wets the ridges by the time irrigation is complete.

 The lateral movement from the furrows depends on the soil type. The furrow spacing for row crops is determined by agronomic requirements of row to row spacing and machinery to be used for planting and cultivation. Check Basin: It consists of running water into relatively level plots surrounded by small ridges. The length of plot is generally less than 3 times the width. The main and lateral channels irrigate the plots.

 The main channel is aligned along the upper end of the field and checks are made on either side of the lateral channels. The check basins are especially suitable for heavy soils with low infiltration rate or highly permeable sandy soils. The key to attain high irrigation efficiency in the design of check basin is to spread water over the entire basin as rapidly as possible. Therefore, the use of large inflow stream reduces water spread time over the basin.

14. Taking the illustration of any one of the recent disasters in India, critically discuss - institutional failures, increasing human interventions and climatechange footprint. (10 marks, 200 words)

The recent widespread devastation unleashed by cloudbursts and sudden torrential rains in the hills of Uttarakhand was tragic Natural phenomena unleash disasters all the time. But natural disasters transform into national calamities only because of human action and inaction. Gross commercialization, burgeoning building and structures, and uncontrolled tourism have robbed the hills of their beauty and tranquil calm.

Mindless and unplanned development, rampant mining, blasting of hills to make way for roads, uprooting of trees, change in the soil structure, unabated expansion of hydro-power projects and an overall insensitive attitude towards the highly ecologically sensitive region has led to widespread ecological degradation of the hills. This in turn has severely compromised the carrying capacity of the hills, robbing them of their natural strength and resilience.

 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts the increased frequency of extreme weather events as a result of global warming. There is a dire need for some sense and sensitivity to prevail when it comes to drawing development plans for hilly regions with fragile ecologies. There is a need for sensitizing the political and the bureaucratic class that development at any cost and that phenomena like global warming and extreme weather are no more in the realm of fiction. Nature gives its own warnings. Heed them and only then will the drama of death and misery not play out, every time there is a natural disaster.

15. What is a shield in Geology? Discuss the major features of the shield region of India. (10 marks, 200 words)

The continental shields are large, stable, relatively flat expanses of very old rocks. They perhaps constitute the earliest “slabs” of solidification of the molten crust. The Peninsular plateau region of India is an ancient tabular block composed mostly of the Archaean gneisses and schists. It has been a stable shield which has gone through little structural changes since its formation. Ever since the dawn of geological history, the peninsula has been a land area and has never been submerged beneath the sea except in a few places where marine transgressions have been made. The entire peninsular plateau is an aggregation of several smaller plateaus and hill ranges interspersed with river basins and valleys. The important plateaus are:

1. The Marwar upland
2. The Central highlands
3. The Bundelkhand uplands
4. The Malwa plateaus
5. The Baghelkhand plateau
6. The Chhotanagpur plateau
8. The Deccan plateau. The Chhattisgarh plain is the only plain worth the name in the vast stretch of plateaus and hill ranges of the peninsular plateau.

The entire plateau region is representing senile topography with lower elevations, rounded peaks, broad u – shaped valleys and rivers without much energy. The important
hill ranges are:

1. The Aravalli range
2. The Vindhyan range
3. The Satpura range
4. The Western Ghats
5. The Eastern ghats.

The Deccan trap region represents one of the LIPs (Large Igneous Provinces) of the world and is the result of fissure type eruption.

16. Write brief notes on the following:
 (a) Characteristics of tsunami(2½ marks, 50 words)

Tsunami (Tsu=harbour and Namis=waves) are seismic waves with following characteristics:

1. have huge wavelength of more than 200 km
2. have periods of 1.6 to 33 minutes
3. have huge energy with them
4. can travel very long distances
5. have a very low crest height (less than 1 meter)

(b) Antecedent drainage in Himalayas (2½ marks, 50 words)

Many of the Himalayan rivers existed even before the Himalayan ranges were uplifted. These rivers originate in the Tibetan side beyond the mountain ranges of the Himalayas. The gorges of the Indus, the Satluj, the Alaknanda, the Gandak, the Kosi and the Brahmaputra clearly indicate that these rivers are older than the mountain themselves. These rivers make transverse valleys across the width of the Himalayas. Thus the Himalayan rivers are typical examples of antecedent drainage.

(c) Near Earth objects (2½ marks, 50 words)

Near Earth Objects are comets and asteroids that have been nudged by the gravitational attraction of nearby planets into orbits that allow them to enter the Earth's neighborhood. Their orbits bring them into proximity with Earth. They are composed mostly of water ice with embedded dust particles. NEOs have become of increased interest since the 1980s because of increased awareness of the potential danger some of the asteroids or comets pose to Earth, and active mitigations are being researched.

(d) Earth Overshoot day (2½ marks, 50 words)

Earth overshoot day is an estimate of the moment in a 12-month period when humans have consumed more natural resources than the biosphere can replace and created more waste than it can absorb. August 19 was Earth Overshoot Day i.e. in less than eight months of 2014, the annual supply of land, water and trees and the planets ability to deal with waste products have been used up. This means that humanity is already living off next year’s supplies, which in turn means that next year’s supplies will end even sooner than this year’s.

17. Explain the following:
(a) Hot Spot volcanoes (2½ marks, 50 words)

A hot spot is a centre of volcanic and plutonic activity, generally not associated with plate – boundary. Most hot spots are 100-200 across and are located in plate interiors. Approximately 200 hot spots are known, at present. The famous examples are
1. Hawaiian Hot Spot
2. Iceland Hot Spot
3. Yellowstone Hot Spot
Hot Sports are thought to be the surface expression of mantle plumes that rise from deep in the Earth’s mantle.

(b) Isostasy (2½ marks, 50 words)

Isostasy is the principle of hydrostatic equilibrium applied to the earth, referring to the position of the lithosphere essentially floating on the asthenosphere, similar to how low-density ice floats at a certain level on water, depending on the relative densities of the water and ice. Isostatic forces are of major importance in controlling the topography of the earth’s surface.
1. Sinking of landmasses and uplift of coastal areas.
2. Continental drift
3. Uplift of European masses

(c) Asthenosphere (2½ marks, 50 words)

Asthenosphere: Below the earth’s surface, from about 70 km down to about 300 km is the plastic layer, called as asthenosphere (“weak sphere”). It is also known as the low-velocity zone. It contains pockets of increased heat from radioactive decay. The average temperature of asthenosphere is 1300°c. It is thought to accommodate much of the movement of the plates and vertical isostatic motions.

(d) Seismic waves (2½ marks, 50 words)

An earthquake generates pulses of energy called seismic waves. Broadly there are two types of seismic waves – surface and body waves. Surface waves travel along the ground surface or just below it. Body waves travel through the solid body of earth.

The sub types are as follows:

(a) Body waves: These are somewhat like sound waves and are of two sub-types

i) P-waves (Primary waves): These are the fastest and can travel through solid, liquid and gases. These are compressional or push-pull waves. These move the material forward and backward in the same direction that the waves themselves are moving

ii) S-waves (Secondary waves): These are slower than P-waves and can travel only through solids as they cause shear stress in the material

(b) Surface waves: These are analogous to undulations or waves on water surface. Two sub types are

i) R-waves (Rayleigh waves): These behave like water waves.

ii) L-waves (Love waves): The L- waves move the particles of the material back and forth in a horizontal plane perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. L waves are most damaging to building foundations. The sequence of arrival of seismic waves on to a seismograph is P, S, L and R.

18. Discuss in brief, the following:
(a) Triple junction (2½ marks, 50 words)

A triple junction is the point where the boundaries of three tectonic plates meet. At the triple junction each of the three boundaries will be one of 3 types - a ridge, trench or transform fault. Triple junctions can be described according to the types of plate margin that meet at them. Of the many possible types of triple junction only a few are stable through time. The junction of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and the East African Rift centered in the Afar Triangle (the Afar Triple Junction) is an example of Ridge-Ridge-Ridge triple junction above sea level.

(b) Monsoon mission (2½ marks, 50 words)

Monsoon Mission is a mission mode project launched by the Earth System Sciences Organization (ESSO) of the Ministry of Earth Sciences with a vision to develop a state of the art dynamical prediction system for monsoon weather and climate on different time scales from short-range to seasonal.

  • The Monsoon Mission will work to achieve the following objectives:

  • To build a working partnership between the Academic R&D Organizations and the Operational Agency to improve the monsoon forecast skill.

  •  To set up a state of the art dynamical modeling frame work for improving prediction skill of Seasonal and Extended range prediction system, Short and Medium range prediction system

  • To set up the infrastructure and manpower required to improve the prediction skill at all the time scales.

(c) Sequestration of global heat by oceans (2½ marks, 50 words)

Since the turn of the century, average surface air temperatures on Earth have not risen, even though the concentration in the atmosphere of heat – trapping carbondioxide
has continued to go up. Dr. Cheng and Dr Tung have shown through their research that a huge amount of energy has been sequestered in the oceans between 300 meters and 1500 meters down, if it had not been so sequestered, they think, there would have been no pause in warming at the surface.

(d) Indian ocean dipole (2½ marks, 50 words)

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD): It is an irregular oscillation of sea – surface temperatures in which the western Indian ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean. A positive phase sees greater than average sea – surface temperatures and greater precipitation in the western Indian ocean region, with a corresponding cooling of waters in the eastern Indian ocean- which tends to cause droughts in adjacent land areas of Indonesia and Australia. The negative phase ofthe IOD brings about the opposite conditions, with warmer water and greater precipitation in the eastern Indian ocean, and cooler and drier conditions in the west.

19. Answer the following:
(a) With an illustration, discuss the importance of cumulative Environment Impact Assessment. (5 marks, 100 words)

An effective EIA should include cumulative impacts that accrue over time and space over a number of projects of the area. In Konkan region of Maharashtra a large number of projects (esp. power plants) have been given permission. Though these projects have carried out Environmental Impact Assessments, but on an individual basis. In normal circumstances this would have been acceptable but the proximity of these projects to each other has to a great extent nullified the individual EIAs. As far as the natural environment is concerned, the effect that will be a cumulative one.

(b) What are Sun spots? How does Sun spot activity correlate with Earth’s climate change? (5 marks, 100 words)

Sun spots are dark spots on the surface of the Sun, representing disturbances of the Sun’s magnetic field. Their numbers and recurrence fluctuate according to the solar cycle but have an average periodicity of some 11 years. Sunspots are the areas on the photosphere where temperatures drop some 1400°C lower than surrounding areas. The number of sunspots occurring at any one time varies from as few as 5 or 6 to more than 100. Each period of weak sunspot activity has been found to correlate with periods of cold on Earth.

20. Answer the following:
(a) List the favourable conditions for the origin of a tropical cyclone. (5 marks, 100 words)

The favourable conditions of the origin of a tropical cyclone-
(a) Sea surface Temperature more than 27°c
(b) Large vapour supply
(c) Low pressure condition being 5°-8° away from the equator
(d) Differential heating of land and water
(e) Anticyclonic divergence in the upper air

(b) What is Glacial Lake outburst? (5 marks, 100 words)

A glacial lake is a water mass existing in a sufficient amount and extending with a free surface in, under, beside, and/or in front of a glacier and originating from glacier activities and/or retreating processes of a glacier. Triggering events for an outburst can be moraine failures induced by an earthquake, by the decrease of permafrost (permanently frozen ground) and increased water pressure, or a rock or snow avalanche slumping into the lake causing an overflow. Usually the lakes at risk are situated in remote and often inaccessible areas. To assess the possible hazards from glacial lakes, it is essential to have a systematic inventory of such lakes at high altitudes. Remote sensing makes it possible to investigate simultaneously a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes in the inaccessible mountain regions.

21. Do you consider that regionalism has strengthened democracy in India? (10 marks, 200 words)

Post-independence regionalism in Indian is manifested in terms of:
(a) demand for more power to State (Sarkaria Commission report).
(b) growth of regional parties, demanding from Centre larger developmental benefits.
(c) creation of new States and gratification of political aspiration of local/regional groups.
(d) growth of Developmental councils (Ladakh, Gorkha Hills, Bodo Hills) and acceleration of development programmes.
(e) coalition politics is becoming stronger and growth of inclusive democracy.

22. How has globalization affected the culture of Indian Society?(10 marks, 200 words)

(1) Definition of culture: Totality of thinking and practices of person in a social context.
(2) Globalization: Introduced popular culture.

(a) Valentine day

(b) Expression of feelings of happiness and sorrows through symbols (smiley, sorry cards, SMS).

(c) Facebook relationship is replacing face to face relationship.

(d) Virtual world relationships are more important than real relationships.

(e) Consumerism is prime source of happiness/unhappiness.

(f) Change in the form and content of food and entertainment (music, dance, relationship).

(g) Alienation from local culture and stepping forward towards universal culture.

(h) Disintegration of value – leading to crisis in social and cultural life.

23. Do you think that caste in India has just been a source of diversity? (10 marks, 200 words)

  • Diversity provides possibility for unity among diversified group.

  • Caste in India has been a hierarchical system since later Vedic period.

  • Brahminic supremacy and exploitation is questioned by Buddhism, Jainism and Bhakti movement.

  •  During colonial rule in India, nationalist leaders felt that caste was responsible for
    (a) Non usability of absolute productive potentials of all the people.
    (b) It was a form of cultural slavery.
    (c) A form of institutionalised inequality supported by culture and religion.

  •  Dayanand Saraswati, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, Periyar, Dr. Ambedkar, Jyotiba Phule, Gandhiji wanted India to be made free from caste colonialism.

  • Constitution and Rule of law speak about abolition of untouchability and casteless India.

  •  caste based violence and discrimination are still continuing in India.

  •  Political mobilisation is taking place in the country.

  •  Dominant castes are seizing power.
    Thus, caste is a source of inequality and conflicts rather than being the source of

24. What are the challenges India faces in the light of its changing demographic profile? (10 marks, 200 words)

Changing demographic profile:

(a) Decline in child mortality and MMR.

(b) Huge increase in population belonging to 25-45 age groups.

(c) Ageing population increasing beyond 6%

(d) Pyramidical structure of population.


(a) Steps to improve pre – natal and post – natal health of mother.

(b) Safe delivery in rural and urban areas

(c) Nutritious mid day meal scheme to improve child health.

(d) Sanitation facility in the schools.

(e) Creation of employment opportunity for youth.

(f) Emphasis on skill education.

(g) Acceleration of space for self-employment.

(h) Special medical facilities for ageing population.

(i) Old age homes.

(j) Rationalisation of old age pension scheme.

(k) Creation of opportunity for livelihood for ageing population.

(l) Involvement of local community, NGO and State to develop integration approach to make India population an asset to development.

25. Distinction between capitalism and socialism is declining in contemporary world order. - Comment. (10 marks, 200 words)

Capitalism emphasizes on rational mobilization of skill, natural resources to accumulate wealth. Socialism gives importance to equal participation in work and equitable distribution of wealth. All over the world, modern technology, optimization of skill and control over global market are becoming useful methods for accumulation of wealth. In capitalist and socialistic countries, governments are taking steps to facilitate scope for global trade.

Trade barriers prevalent earlier are eroded (China, Japan, France) In early capitalist societies, welfare measures are undertaken (For e.g. Health Insurance scheme, preference for jobs to American citizens etc.) In Scandinavian countries, socialistic measures like (unemployment, old age benefits) are extended to the citizens. Corporates are switching over their interest from profit making to social responsibility.

Growth oriented approach is now replaced by inclusive growth. Collective happiness and class well-being is evolving and becoming central to developmental planning. [Society related answers are provided as key points due to the vastness of approaches]

Courtesy : Facebook Group