UPSC Mains General Studies Solved Paper (2013) - "Paper-4 : Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management"

UPSC Mains General Studies Solved Paper (2013) - "Paper-4 : Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management"

Q1. With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications. (200 words)


The new Companies Bill, 2012, would seek to usher in more transparency and governance in the corporate bodies besides creating the necessary environment for growth in the present global structure. 

In 1956, there were just about a few thousand companies in the country. The number had now grown to more than a million now. The government was in favour of a fewer regulation and self-regulation by the business houses, he added. 

The objective was also to help small one-person companies to access facilities and credit, besides ensuring one minimum woman director in certain prescribed class of companies. The effort would also be to encourage these companies to give employment to all sections of society. 

The Bill, as ratified by Parliament, prescribes an expenditure of 2 per cent of profits on CSR (corporate social responsibility) activities in their respective areas of operation. These would have to be outcome and timeline-driven with details posted on websites. 

It provides for formation of welfare trusts which could buy shares of the company and be part of the decision-making process, there was no provision for giving representation to employees on the board of directors. Once enacted, the law will also provide for faster liquidation, mergers and acquisitions. 

But it remains a challenge to find the right people to serve as independent directors. If the government were to impose this requirement on a very large number of non-listed companies, will there be enough qualified people in the market to act as effective independent directors?

He added that the new bill is expected to be implemented in stages, and that the government would need to make sure that there are no surviving provisions of the 1956 act that overlap or conflict with any newly-introduced provisions.

The bill stipulates provisions to provide better protection for investors from financial fraud. It also allows shareholders or depositors, who believe a company’s way of conducting business is not in the best interest of the company, to file a lawsuit before the National Company Law Tribunal, or NCLT.

The bill also makes the process of shutting down of insolvent companies easier and mandates that corporate courts should act within 90 days of receiving a petition from a creditor seeking a closure.

The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, in an official statement, said “the global environment calls for economic laws and regulations that are effective and efficient, have a reasonable compliance cost and keep Indian businesses competitive,” and expressed hope that there were no inconsistencies that would clash with older measures and affect the implementation of the new bill’s provisions.

Q2. What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2013? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

3. What is the meaning of the term ‘tax expenditure’? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences the budgetary policies of the government. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q4. Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q5. What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and at state levels? Critically analyse the agricultural subsidy regime with reference to the distortions created by it. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q6. India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for ensuring better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q7. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? Discuss. (200 words)


When  government opened the country’s markets to foreign investments in the early 1990s. The government of India made changes in its economic policy in 1991 by which it allowed direct foreign investments in the country. As a result of this, globalization of the Indian Industry took place on a major scale.

The benefits of the effects of globalization in the Indian Industry are that many foreign companies set up industries in India, especially in the pharmaceutical, BPO, petroleum, manufacturing, and chemical sectors and this helped to provide employment to many people in the country. This helped reduce the level of unemployment and poverty in the country. Also the benefit of the Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that the foreign companies brought in highly advanced technology with them and this helped to make the Indian Industry more technologically advanced. 

The various negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that it increased competition in the Indian market between the foreign companies and domestic companies. With the foreign goods being better than the Indian goods, the consumer preferred to buy the foreign goods. This reduced the amount of profit of the Indian Industry companies. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical, manufacturing, chemical, and steel industries. The negative Effects of Globalization on Indian Industry are that with the coming of technology the number of labor required decreased and this resulted in many people being removed from their jobs. This happened mainly in the pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, and cement industries. 

The effects of globalization on Indian Industry have proved to be positive as well as negative. The government of India must try to make such economic policies with regard to Indian Industry’s Globalization that are beneficial and not harmful.

Q8. Establish relationship between land reforms, agricultural productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture – friendly land reforms in India. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q9. (a) Discuss the impact of FDI entry into Multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

9. (b) Though India allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons. (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q10. Discuss the rationale for introducing the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q11. Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problem of conventional energy. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q12. Adoption of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free of criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q13. Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to the section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgement in rejecting Novartis’ patent application for ‘Glivec’. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision. (200 words)


On 26th December 2004 the then UPA-I Government promulgated an ordinance — The Patents (Amendment) Ordinance, 2004. The ordinance was issued by the government to change the then existing Indian Patents Act in order to make it conform to the agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), that India had signed as part of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement in 1994. The Amended Act contained in the ordinance was to replace the earlier 1970 Act that had been widely recognized as a key reason why India had become a centre for production of affordable versions of new drugs – prompting many to term India as the ‘pharmacy of the South’, which supplied low-cost affordable drugs to a very large number of low and middle income countries in Asia, South America and Africa.

One of the important clauses introduced by the Indian Parliament was a new section – section 3(d). This section lies at the heart of the litigation that Novartis has been pursuing for seven years, and it is this section which has been instrumental in the refusal of the patent by the Supreme Court of India. Imatinib mesylate has been patented in many countries by the Swiss MNC, Novartis, which sells the drug under the Brand name of Glivec. In India, the initial patent application for the medicine was rejected by the patent office in 2006. Novartis persisted in its efforts to get a patent and appealed to the Patent Appellate Board. When the Board rejected Novartis’ application again, the company challenged the decision in the Chennai High Court. It also challenged section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act — a provision that had been cited by the Patent office while rejecting the Glivec patent application. The Chennai high court rejected both the appeals, which led to Novartis bringing its appeal to the Supreme Court of India.

The original patent on imatinib was filed by Novartis in 1993 for the ‘amorphous free base’ molecule of the chemical, Imatinib Mesylate. An amorphous substance is what exists in nature and is usually a mixture of different variants. In the 1998 Novartis filed a patent application in India for the Beta crystalline variant of the molecule, which is derived from the amorphous substance that they had earlier patented. They also claimed that the Beta crystalline variety is better absorbed by the body. The 1993 patent was not recognized in India as at that time Indian law did not allow patenting of medicines. When the law was changed in 2005, Novartis pressed for acceptance of its patent application for the Beta crystalline variety of the salt. The patent office rejected the patent and held that the invention claimed was anticipated by prior publication; that the invention claimed by Novartis was obvious to a person skilled in the art; and further that the patentability of the alleged invention was disallowed by section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act.

Novartis’ subsequent appeals in the Patent appellate board and Chennai high court were rejected. The appellate board, while rejecting the patent again said: “Since India is having a requirement of higher standard of inventive step by introducing the amended section 3(d) of the Act, what is patentable in other countries will not be patentable in India. As we see, the object of amended section 3(d) of the Act is nothing but a requirement of higher standard of inventive step in the law particularly for the drug/pharmaceutical substances.” Novartis also challenged Section 3(d) of the Indian Act in the High Court, claiming that it was in violation of India’s obligations at the WTO. The Chennai high court pointed out that domestic courts cannot be asked to give an opinion regarding international treaties and obligations, and Novartis should take its complaint to the dispute settlement mechanism in the WTO. Novartis, has never done so and clearly Section 3(d) does not violate international obligations.

In the Supreme Court Novartis challenged the interpretation of Section 3(d). This section stipulates that trivial changes in existing molecules cannot be candidates for fresh patenting. Such trivial patenting (known as ‘evergreening’) is an old ploy used by drug companies to extend their monopoly. Companies first apply for a patent for the basic molecule and then attempt to extend the life of their monopoly by subsequently applying for fresh patents after a few years on as slightly different version of the original molecule. Such changes do not qualify for a patent under the Indian Act as they would have been anticipated (would have been obvious) to a person skilled in the art – thus it does not constitute real innovative activity.

In its appeal to the Supreme Court, Novartis argued that section 3(d) had not being properly interpreted. The section says that minor variations in an existing molecule cannot be patented unless there is a ‘significant’ enhancement in efficacy of the medicine. Novartis claimed that since the Beta variant is better absorbed – i.e. it has better ‘bioavailibility’ (by about 30%) it constitutes a significant therapeutic enhancement. It is interesting to note here that the patent office, while rejecting the company’s patent application, had stated that anybody trained in chemistry would know that an amorphous salt is made up of different variants, and it is common knowledge that the variant are likely to have slightly different properties.

Pros and Cons of the decision

Novartis has consistently played the victim in the Gilivec case. It continues to say that it was not fighting the case to make money but to uphold the principle that it deserves credit for the investment it has made in research to develop the drug. What Novartis does not tell us is that Glivec was granted ‘orphan drug’ status in the United States and was therefore eligible for tax rebates equal to half the cost of clinical testing (the major cost for drug development). Brian Druker, one of the scientists involved in developing Imatinib while working in Oregon Health and Science University Cancer Institute wrote in a signed article in livemint in 2007: “Many scientists, if not most of those I have collaborated with in these settings, are engaged in research primarily motivated by the pursuit of knowledge as a means to help patients. For many of these scientists it is, therefore, of great concern that the results of their efforts can’t reach patients and save lives because of pricing strategies and patent policies such as ‘patent evergreening’ (minor changes to existing molecules designed to extend patent monopolies) used by partners further down the drug development process”. Druker has again reiterated this position recently (in a comment to the Times of India) in the light of the Supreme court judgment.

Novartis had challenged a very important part of the the Indian Patent Act and its attempt to balance the rights of patent holders with the needs of the Indian people for access to treatment that is affordable. Section 3(d) of the Act has been used several times by the Indian patent office to deny patents for other trivial inventions, especially in the case of HIV/AIDS medicines. If Novartis’ appeal was upheld applicability of section 3(d) would have been seriously compromised, leading to the possible reopening of a number of rejected patent applications. It could also have opened the door for a flood of applications, many of which were not filed by companies because of the existence of Section 3(d). The Novartis judgment, thus, has implications for access to medicines not just for leukemia patients but for a whole range of patients — located not just in India but in over a hundred countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa — who are today able to access cheaper drugs made by Indian companies.

Q14. What do you understand by Fixed Dose drug Combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits. (200 words)


The Food and Drug Administration, USA defines a combination product/ fixed dose drug combinations (FDCs) as ‘a product composed of any combination of a drug and a device or a biological product and a device or a drug and a biological product or a drug, device, and a biological product’. FDCs are highly popular in the Indian pharmaceutical market and have been particularly flourishing in the last few years.

The merits of FDCs should be based on certain aspects such as : 

  • The drugs in the combination should act by different mechanisms.
  • The pharmacokinetics must not be widely different.
  • The combination should not have supra-additive toxicity of the ingredients.

Most FDCs have the following demerits: 

  • Dosage alteration of one drug is not possible without alteration of the other drug.
  • Differing pharmacokinetics of constituent drugs pose the problem of frequency of administration of the formulation.
  • By simple logic there are increased chances of adverse drug effects and drug interactions compared with both drugs given individually.

Q15. What do you understand by Umpire Decision Review System in cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicone tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system? (200 words)


The Umpire Decision Review System (abbreviated as UDRS or DRS) is a technology-based system used in the sport of cricket. The system was first introduced in Test cricket, for the sole purpose of reviewing controversial decisions made by the on-field umpires in the case of whether or not a batsman had been dismissed. The system was first tested in an India v Sri Lanka game in 2008.

There are basically three components in UDRS. The use of Snickometer was suspended but was reintroduced in 2013

  • Hawk-Eye, Eagle Eye, or Virtual Eye: ball-tracking technology that plots the trajectory of a bowling delivery that has been interrupted by the batsman, often by the pad, and can determine whether it would have hit the wicket or not.
  • Hot Spot: Infra-red imaging system that illuminates where the ball has been in contact with bat or pad.
  • Real time Snickometer, which relies on directional microphones to detect small sounds made as the ball hits the bat or pad.

Hot spot’s success rate is found to be 90–95%. New cameras were used in Border-Gavaskar series in 2011–12 for viewers, which were vastly superior to those that had been part of the DRS in the past.

The Ashes series is already plagued by controversy over technology’s role in cricket. The latest allegations of equipment tampering haven’t helped. Australian TV station Channel Nine has reported some cricketers may be using silicone tape to evade detection of nicks by hot spot cameras. England batsman Kevin Pietersen has strenuously denied taping his bat with the tape.

So it seems the winning team needs to be master of not just bat and ball but also the Umpire  decision review system (UDRS). The question being asked by some is whether the UDRS has encouraged new ways of cheating, rather than just new tactics.

Q16. (a) What is a digital signature? What does its authentication mean? Give various salient built-in features of a digital signature. (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q16. (b) How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology. (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q17. (a) What is an FRP composite material? How are they manufactured? Discuss their application in aviation and automobile industries. (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q17. (b) What do you understand by Run-of-river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project? (100 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q18. How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System? (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

19. What are the consequences of Illegal mining? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forest’s concept of GO AND NO GO zones for coal mining sector. (200 words)


The consequences of Illegal mining :

  • Toxic waste can be a very harmful effect of illegal mining. 
  • If the mining sites are near bodies of water chemicals can also poison the water and the fish, it can also destroy beautiful coral reefs.
  • Fertile land can also be affected, land can become very hard and dry because of the chemicals as well.
  • Boiling toxic waste can cause burns on people living near the mining sites. The gas can also be very bad to take into your body.
  • Also, if you build the mines on forest lands, the habitat of countless land species may be destroyed and those species may die.

The Union ministry of environment and forests has reiterated its stand against mining in coal fields demarcated ‘no-go’ zones. In response to the coal ministry’s advice to allow mining in all coal-bearing areas, the environment ministry said it will be against the letter and spirit of the Forest Conservation Act.

The coal and environment ministries had jointly undertaken an exercise to mark ‘go’ and ‘no-go’ areas for mining in nine coal fields in June 2010. As per the parameters set by the ministries, of the 582 coal blocks over 600,000 hectares, 49 per cent were declared no-go zone, where mining could be carried out in compliance with the environment and forest laws. The coal ministry and the Prime Minister’s Office opposed this.

The environment ministry re-examined the classification of coal blocks into the two categories. This time, 23.27 per cent of the area was declared no-go zone. But even after the revised study was appreciated by the committee chaired by B K Chaturvedi, a member of the Planning Commission, the coal ministry proposed that the zone classification should not be implemented. In December, it wrote to the Cabinet secretary asking it to “consider all coal blocks without reference to go and no-go areas”, arguing that coal blocks in the no-go zone had already been allocated to mining and power companies. 

The Chaturvedi committee had recommended that the coal ministry gave alternative coal blocks to those allocated such blocks in the no-go zone. 

The environment ministry has written a note that the coal ministry’s proposal should not be agreed to since “even after best efforts in afforestation and reclamation, it will not be possible to retrieve their (rich forests under no-go zone) intricate biological features and biodiversity”. The ministry stated, “A decision to ignore findings of the study, based on objective parameters, may invite judicial intervention.” 

Q20. Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India? (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q21. Money laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

22. What are social networking sites and what security implications do these sites present? (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q23. Cyber warfare is considered by some defense analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same. (200 words) (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q24. Article 244 of the Indian Constitution relates to administration of schedules area and tribal areas.  Analyse the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of the Fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing extremism. (200 words)


It is not merely a matter of coincidence that Left-Wing Extremism is prevalent in the Schedule V areas while the insurgent movements have confined themselves to Schedule VI areas. It is necessary for us to introspect and get to the bottom of the reasons and causes which has led us to this place and situation. Despite the various efforts that have been made a large gap still remains to be bridged.  

The alienation of the tribal population has been growing rapidly mainly because they are being dispossessed of all their livelihood resources.  The diversion of forests and common property resources for the use of non-forest purposes has resulted in the displacement of tribals from their homeland.   The general apathy of official machinery, the escalating assaults related to their existing rights, the growing clout of market forces, the threat of mining and of course, the meager  advancement through planned development efforts have been responsible for the growing unrest amongst this most oppressed and depressed class of people. 

The Governors have been endowed with certain special powers with regard the Fifth Scheduled Areas.  The judicious use of the provisions enshrined in the Fifth Schedule of our Constitution will certainly make a very positive impact on the tribals living in these regions.

Under the powers conferred by the Fifth Schedule, the Governors can not only direct that any particular law or part thereof may not apply to a Scheduled Area that can also make regulation for good governance and peace in these areas.  The Governors can intervene in areas relating to-Prohibition or Restriction of the transfer of land by or among Scheduled Tribe members; regulation of allotment of land in such areas; and the regulation of money-lending activities.  The Governor has basically been given the legislative power to make regulations for the “peace and good government of any area which is a scheduled area.”  The peace and good government are words of very wide import and give wide discretion to the Governor to make laws for such purpose.   

One can recall the observations made by the President at the Governors’ Conference held on 16th and 17th of September, 2008 regarding the need for an authoritative legal opinion with respect to powers of Governors under the Fifth Schedule.      The matter has since been examined in consultation with Ministry of Law and Justice and Attorney General of India has opined that “in performance of the functions and exercise of the powers under the Fifth Schedule, the Governor  is not bound by the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers of the State”.  The provisions of Articles 244(1) and 244 (2) which provide for the administration of the Scheduled Areas within a State in accordance with a Fifth & Sixth Schedule respectively emerge from the Excluded and Partially- Excluded Areas as envisaged under the Government of India Act, 1935. 

The focus of the the Panchayat Extension Scheduled Areas Act, 1996 (PESA) is to recognize the Gram Sabha as a key unit of governance in the Scheduled V areas as this would in turn give the people a control over their own resources. The purpose of  implementing  PESA in the Scheduled V Areas is to promote self-governance in order to address the problem of exploitation.  But unfortunately, the implementation of PESA has not been satisfactory despite the guidelines that have been issued in this regard to State Governments by the Ministry of Panchayati Raj.

Forest Rights Act for Scheduled Tribes and other  Traditional Forest Dwellers is a land mark legislation which gave a new hope to millions of tribals who have been living in forests for generations.  For the first time ever, this Act seeks to recognize and regularize the pre-existing rights of tribals living in the Scheduled Areas.  The Governors of the Fifth Scheduled States may ensure the speedy implementation of the Forest Rights Act through their respective State Governments as this would reduce a lot of tension arising out of land related issues in these areas.  Under the provisions of para-3 of the Fifth Schedule wherein the Governors of Scheduled Areas States are expected to make an assessment of the administration of the Scheduled Areas and send an annual report to the President of India.  The said reports should also deal with the observations made by the Tribal Advisory Council of the State and indicate steps taken with respect to the recommendation of the TAC.  As per the records available with the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the Governor’s Report of the administration of the Scheduled Areas for the year 2009-10 is yet to come from some States.   It is urged that the Governors to send this annual report in a timely manner as this would help the Ministry to evaluate the progress that has taken place in the Scheduled Areas of the States. 

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution among other things provides for the administration of tribal areas through District/Regional Councils in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura in exercise of powers given under the Constitution, the Governors of the Sixth Scheduled Areas may hold consultations with State Governments and Councils to emphasise need for having the democratic and decentralized governance at the village level.  Some of the provisions that could be considered may include (i) creation of elected Village Councils where they do not exist; (ii) making Village Councils answerable to Gram Sabha; (iii) recognize Gram Sabha under the law and specify their powers and functions; (iv) mandatory and regular election for the Village Council through the State Election Commission and (v) vesting of more powers to Village Councils and Gram Sabha.

Q25. How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar? (200 words)

The proclivity of India’s neighbours to exploit the country’s nation-building difficulties, India’s internal security challenges are inextricably linked with border management. This is so because Indian insurgent groups have for long been provided shelter across the nation’s borders by inimical neighbours. The challenge of coping with long-standing territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan, combined with porous borders along some of the most difficult terrain in the world, has made effective and efficient border management a national priority. However, due to the lack of understanding of such military issues among the decision-making elite, India’s borders continue to be manned by a large number of military, para-military and police forces, each of which has its own ethos and each of which reports to a different central ministry at New Delhi, with almost no real coordination in managing the borders. 

The border security scenario is marked by increased cross-border terrorism; infiltration and ex-filtration of armed militants; emergence of non-state actors; nexus between narcotics traffickers and arms smugglers; left-wing extremism; separatist movements aided and abetted by external powers; and, the establishment of madrasas, some of which are potential security hazards.Ideally, border management should be the responsibility of the home ministry during peacetime. However, the active nature of the Line of Control and the need to maintain troops close to the Line of Actual Control in a state of readiness for operations in high altitude areas, have compelled the army to permanently deploy large forces for this task. 

While the Border Security Force should be responsible for all settled borders, the responsibility for unsettled and disputed borders, such as the LoC in J&K and the LAC on the Indo-Tibetan border, should be that of the Indian Army. The principle of ‘single point control’ must be followed if the borders are to be effectively managed. Divided responsibilities never result in effective control. Despite sharing the responsibility with several para-military and police forces, the army’s commitment for border management amounts to six divisions along the LAC, the LoC and the Actual ground Position Line in J&K and five divisions along the LAC and the Myanmar border in the eastern sector. 

A task force on border management was constituted by the Group of Ministers formed to review the major issues pertaining to the management of national security after the Kargil conflict. It was led by Madhav Godbole, a former Union home secretary, and had made several far-reaching recommendations. It had recommended that the Central Reserve Police Force should be designated as the primary national level counter-insurgency force. This would enable the other central para-military forces like the BSF and Indo-Tibetan Border Police to return to their primary role of better border management. 

Click Here to Buy Study Kit in Hard Copy for IAS Mains Exam

Click Here to Buy Important Books for IAS Mains Exam