Syllabus of Examination
ANTHROPOLOGY (Optional Subjects)
1.1 Meaning and scope Anthropology
1.2 Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology,
Psychology, Political Science, Life Science, Medical Science.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance
a) Social-cultural Anthropology
b) Physical and biological Anthropology
c) Archaeological Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man.
Organic Evolution-Theories of evolution in historical perspective,
pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian period. Modern synthetic theory of
evolution; brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll's
rule, Cope's rule, Gause's rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation,
mosaic evolution); Principles of systematics and taxonomy, major primate taxa,
tertiary and quaternary fossil primates, Systematics of Hominoidea and Hominidae,
Origin and evolution of man-'Homo erectus and Homo sapiens'.
1.5 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and distribution
of the following:
a) Prepleistocence fossil primates-Oreopithecus.
b) South and East African hominids-Plesianthropus/Australopithecus Africaus,
c) Paranthropus-Homo erectus-Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
d) Homo Heidelbergensis.
e) Neanderthal man-La-chapelle-aus-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmelites types
f) Rhodesian man
g) Homo sapiens-Cromognon, Grimaldi, Chancelede.
Recent advances in understanding the evolution, distribution and
multidisciplinary approach to understand a fossil type in relation to others.
1.6 Evolutionary trend and classification of the order
Primates, Relationship with other mammals, molecular evolution of Primates,
Comparative anatomy of man and apes, primate locomotion;-terrestrial and
arboreal adaptation, skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.7 Cultural Evolution-broad outlines of pre-historic
e) Copper-Bronze age
f) Iron age
2.1 Family-Definition and typology of family,
household and domestic groups. Basic structure and functions; stability and
changes in family. Typological and processual approaches to the study of family.
Impact of urbanization, industrialization, education and feminist movements.
Universality of family-a critique.
2.2 Concept of kinship : Definition of kin, incest
prohibition exogamy and endogamy. Principles of descent-types and functions.
Political and jural aspects of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent.
Descent, filiation and complementary filiation. Kinship terminology, typology
and approaches to the study of terminology Alliance and descent.
2.3 Marriage -Definition, types and variation of
marriage systems. Debates on the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of
marriage-preferential, prescriptive, proscriptive and open systems. Types and
form of marriage Dowry, bride-price, pestation and marriage stability.
3.1 Study of culture, patterns and processes. Concept
of culture, patterns of culture, relationships between culture and civilization
3.2 Concept of Social Change and Cultural Change:
3.3 Social structure and social organization, Role-analysis and social
network. Institutions, groups community. Social stratification: principles and
form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types of mobility.
3.4 Concept of Society.
3.5 Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical
evolutionism, neo-evolutionism, culture ecology, historical particularism and
diffusionism, structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transaction-alism,
symbolism, congnitive approach and new ethnography, post structuralism and
4.1 Definitions and functions of religion.
Anthropological approaches to the study of religion-evolutionary,
psychological and functional. Magic, witchcraft and sorcery; definitions and
functions and functionaries: priest, saman, medicine man and sorcerers.
Symbolism in religion and rituals. Ethnomedicine. Myths and rituals: definitions
and approaches to their study-structural, functional and processual Relation
with economic and political structures.
5.1 Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing production,
distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting-gathering,
fishing, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Fomalist and
substantivist debate-Dalton, Karl-polyanny and Marx approach and New Economic
Anthropology. Exchange: gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market
5.2 Theoretical foundations. Types of political organisations-band, tribe,
chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law
and justice in tribal and peasant societies.
6.1 Concepts of developmental Anthropological perspective. Models of
development. Critiques of classical developmental theories. Concepts of planning
and planned development. Concept of participatory development. Culture ecology
and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.
7.1 Concept of research in anthroplogy, subjectivity
and reflexivity in terms of gender class, ideology and ethics. Distinction
between methodology, methods and techniques. Nature and explanation in
anthropological research. Positivistics and non-positivistic approaches.
Comparative methods; nature, purpose and methods of comparison in social and
cultural anthroplogy. Basic techniques of data collection. Interview,
participant and other forms of observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study
methods, extended casestudy methods, life histories and seconday sources, oral
history, genealogical method, participatory, learning and assessment (PLA).
Participatory rapid assessment (PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation
8.1 Concept, scope and major branches of human
genetics. Its relationship with other branches of science and medicine.
8.2 Method for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedegree
analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method,
chromosomal and karyotype analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods,
D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
8.3 Twin study method-zygosity, heritability estimates, present status of
the twin study method and its applications.
8.4 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor,
lethal, sub-lethal, and polygenic inheritance in man.
8.5 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population,
Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation,
isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous
and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous
and cousin marriages (statistical and probability methods for study of human
8.6 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man,
a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders)
b) Sex chromosomal aberrations-Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female
(XXX), intersex, and other syndromic disorders.
c) Autosomal aberrations-Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counselling,
human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
8.7 Concept of race in histrogical and biological
perspective. Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of
non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to
heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial
differentiation and race-crossing in man.
8.8 Ethnic groups of mankind-characteristics and distribution in world,
racial classification of human groups. Principal living peoples of world. Their
distribution and characterisicts.
8.9 Age, sex and population variation in gentic marker-ABO, Rh blood
groups, HLA, Hp, transferrin, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb
level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in
different cultural and socio-economic groups. Impact of smoking air pollutions,
alcoholism, drugs and occupational hazards on health.
9.1 Concepts and Methods of Ecological Anthropology.
Adaptation-social and cultural Deterministic theories-a critique.
Resources-biological, non-biological and sustainable development. Biological
adaptation-climatic, environmental, nutritional and genetic.
10.1 Relevance in understanding of contemporary society. Dynamics of
ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethric conflicts and
political developments. Concept of ethnic boundaries. Ethnicity and concept of
11.1 Concept of human growth and development-stages of growth-prenatal,
natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
- Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations-biological and chronological
longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
12.1 Reproductive biology, demography and population study. Reproductive
physiology of male and female. Biological aspects of human fertility. Relevance
of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertily patterns and
12.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
12.3 Demographic methods-census, registration system, sample methods, duel
12.4 Population structures and population dynamics.
12.5 Demographic rates and ratios, life table-structure and utility.
12.6 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility
natality and mortality.
12.7 Methods of studying population growth.
12.8 Biological consequences of population control and family welfare.
13.1 Anthropology of sports
13.2 Nutritional Anthropology.
13.3 Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments.
13.4 Forensic Anthropology.
13.5 Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction.
13.6 Applied human genetics-Paternity diagnosis genetic counselling and
13.7 DNA technology-prevention and cure of diseases.
13.8 Anthropo-gentics in medicine
13.9 Serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
13.10 Application of statistical principles in human genetics and Physical
1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre
historic (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus
Civilization). Vedic and post-Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal
2. Demographic profile of India-Ethinic and linguistic elements in the Indian
population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its
structure and growth.
3. The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a
critique. Varnasharam, Purushartha, Karma,
Rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system.
Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of
Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India-contributions of
the 19th Century and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of
Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies. Contemporary nature of
anthropological studies in India.
5. Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture-traditional and
5.1 Aspects of Indian village-Social organisations of agriculture, impact of
market economy on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.
6. Tribal situation in India-biogenetic variability, linguistic and
socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.
Problems of the tribal Communities-land alienation, poverty indebtedness, low
literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and
nutrition. Developmental projects-tribal displacement and problems of
Development of forest policy and tribals, Impact of urbanisation and
industrialization on tribal and rural populations.
7. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and
Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of
modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on
tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal movements and quest
for identity. Pseudo-tribalism.
8. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religious on tribal
8.2 Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India
and other countries.
9. History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes
of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.
9.1 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.2 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism,
communalism and ethnic and political movements.
Paper I - (Part I)
1. Beattie : Other Cultures
2. Beals & Hoijer/ : An Introduction to Anthropology
3. Haviland : An Introduction to Anthropology
4. Vaid : Economy and Social Relations
5. U.S. Mishra : An Introduction to Social-Cultural Anthropology (in Hindi)
6. Mishra & Hasnain : Unifying Anthropology
7. Honigman : he World of Man
8. Herskovits : Cultural Anthropology
9. Majumdar & Madan : An Introduction to Social Anthropology
10.Sagar Preet : Basic Concepts in Sociology and Anthropology
11. Abhik Ghosh : Meetings with the Other (on Fieldwork Techniques)
12. Gaya and Pandey : Cultural Anthropology
1. Harrison et. al : Human Biology
2. Shukla & Rastogi : Physical Anthropology & Human Genetics
3. Stein & Rowe : An Introduction to Physical Anthropology.
4. Vaid & Pandey : Jaivik Manavshastra (in Hindi)
5. B. Janusch : Origins of Man
6. Virender Kumar : Evolution of Genus Homo
7. Surender Nath : Forensic Anthropology
8. Surender Nath : Nutritional Anthropology
9. M. Harris : Rise of Anthropological Theory
10. U.S. Misra : Anthropological Thought (in Hindi)
11. Herskovits : Cultural Anthropology
12. Booklet published by Jawahar Publishers
1. NCERT : Indian Society, Social Change
2. Bhattacharya, D.K. : An Outline of Indian Prehistory
3. Srinivas : Caste in India & Other Essays
4. Srinivas : Social Change in Modern India
5. Y. Singh : Modernisation of Indian Tradition
6. Vidyarthi & Rai : Tribal Cultures of India
7. N. Hasnain : Indian Anthropology
8. N. Hasnain : Tribal India
9. R.C. Verma : Indian Tribes
10. Vaid : Who Cares for Tribal Development (Hindi & English)
11. A.L. Basham : The Wonder that was India
12. G.S. Bhatt : Bharatiya Samajik Vichar (in Hindi)
13. Sagar Preet : Reservation for Backward Classes a Perspective