Syllabus of Examination
Chemistry (Optional Subjects)
1. Atomic Structure: Heisenberg's uncertainty
principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave
function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave
functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical Bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of
ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general
characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments;
Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy; Molecular
orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in H2+, H2, He2+ to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, and
CN–; Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond
strength and bond length.
3. Solid State: Crystal systems; Designation of
crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell; Bragg's law; X-ray diffraction
by crystals; Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting
radius ratio values; Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl and CaF2; Stoichiometric and
nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
4. The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon:
Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions and critical
phenomena and liquefaction of gases, Maxwell's distribution of speeds,
intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion; Thermal
conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.
5. Liquid State: Kelvin equation; Surface tension and
surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary
6. Thermodynamics: Work, heat and internal energy;
first law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state
function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy–reversibility and
irreversibility, Free energy functions; Thermodynamic equation of state; Maxwell
relations; Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, A, G, Cp and Cv,
? and ?; J-T effect and inversion temperature; criteria for equilibrium,
relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat
theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics.
7. Phase Equilibria and Solutions: Clausius-Clapeyron
equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary
systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution
temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination;
excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.
8. Electrochemistry: Debye-Huckel theory of strong
electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport
properties. Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series,
measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer,
current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques: Polarography,
amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their uses.
9. Chemical Kinetics: Differential and integral rate
equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions; Rate
equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions;
branching chain and explosions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate
constant; Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods;
Collisions and transition state theories.
10. Photochemistry: Absorption of light; decay of
excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogen and
halogens and their quantum yields.
11. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis: Absorption from
gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption
isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of
reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.
12. Bio-inorganic Chemistry: Metal ions in biological
systems and their role in ion transport across the membranes (molecular
mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.
13. Coordination Compounds: (i) Bonding theories of
metal complexes; Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its
modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and
electronic spectra of metal complexes. (ii) Isomerism in coordination compounds;
IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with
4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans
effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer
complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes. (iii) EAN rule,
Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions,
carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds. (iv) Complexes with aromatic
systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne
complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative
addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their
characterization; Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.
14. Main Group Chemistry: Boranes, borazines,
phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen
compounds; Sulphur – nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.
15. General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Elements:
Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral
properties; lanthanide contraction.
1. Delocalised Covalent Bonding: Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity;
annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.
2. (i) Reaction Mechanisms: General methods
(both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism of organic reactions:
isotopic method, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry;
energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
(ii) Reactive Intermediates: Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of
carbonium ions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.
(iii) Substitution Reactions: SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms; neighbouring group
participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds
including heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.
(iv) Elimination Reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2
reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination – Chugaev and Cope
(v) Addition Reactions: Electrophilic addition to C=C and C?C; nucleophilic
addition to C=0, C?N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
(vi) Reactions and Rearrangements: (a) Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann,
Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein
(b) Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel,
Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe,
benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis,
Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
3. Pericyclic Reactions: Classification and examples;
Woodward-Hoffmann rules – electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2
and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.
4. (i) Preparation and Properties of Polymers:
Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon,
terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.
(ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.
5. Synthetic Uses of Reagents: OsO4, HIO4, CrO3,
Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAlH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi and MCPBA.
6. Photochemistry: Photochemical reactions of simple
organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states,
Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.
7. Spectroscopy: Principle and applications in
(i) Rotational: Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational
(ii) Vibrational: Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific
frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
(iii) Electronic: Singlet and triplet states; n p* and p p* transitions;
application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser
rules; Charge transfer spectra.
(iv) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and
spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.
(v) Mass Spectrometry: Parent peak, base peak, metastable peak, McLafferty
• Gaseous state, Thermodynamics, Phase rule, solutions, Colligative
properties, Electro Chemistry, Catalysis, Colloids - Principals of physical
chemistry - Puri, Sharma & Pathawa
• Chemical kinetics - Advance physical chemistry - Gurdeep Raj
• Photo chemistry - A text book of physical chemistry (Vol. - IV) - K.L. Kapoor
• Advance physical chemistry - Gurdeep Raj.
• Bonding and shape of organic molecules, Stereo chemistry of carbon
compound - Reactions and reagents - O.P. Agarwal
• A guide to mechanism in organic chemistry - Peter Sykes
• Rest of the chapters - A text book of organic chemistry - Bahl & Bahl
• Atomic Structure - Principle of physical chemistry - Puri, Sharma & Pathwa
• Advance inorganic chemistry - J.D. Lee
• Chemical Periodicity, Chemical bonding,Coordination compound – Selected topics
in inorganic chemistry - Maden, Malik, Tuli
• Theoretical principles of inorganic chemistry - G.S. Manku,
• Extradiction of metals, Principle of inorganic chemistry - Puri, Sharma,
• Rest all the chapters - An advance inorganic chemistry - J.D. Lee
• Pollution and its control - A text book of environmental chemistry and