Syrian Crisis: Civil Services Mentor Magazine - February - 2016

Syrian Crisis

Syria crisis started with the problem between President Bashar Al- Assad and his political rivals. Opposition got the military help from the Syrian Military Command and the Free Syrian Army. Crisis started in 2013 and in the miudst of crisis rulling regime was accussed of using chemical weapon against the opposition. Initially United Nations went against the coercive action against President Assad. However, the regime has been given clear notice to totally clear up its stock of chemical weapons by mid-2014 and comply with the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Some countries like Turkey and US, though they dispute it, started providing military support to ISIS for dismantaling Assad as president. They have an interest in providing arms and weapons to the opposition. Apart from the sale of arms and weapons it also gives greater political influence in the region. This opposition has taken the shape of ISIS, a terrorist organisation, and now they control a big area in Syria. They also control the oil wells and provide the oil to neighbouring countries for financing their war. ISIS has now taken the shape of worldwide terrorist organisation and they want to establish the caliphate system again. Syrian crisis has also divided UN security council members into two groups. Russia and China support the Assad against the Free Syrian Amy. After the ISIS attack on paris situation has changed now whole world has gone against the ISIS. Only contentious issue remains is what will be the future of President Bashar Al-Assad after the ouster of ISIS. There is a huge crisis of refugee from this war-torned country to europe. A large number of people have crossed the mediterranian to enter the european countries. However after the Paris terrorist attack countries have become increasingly cautious about refugee influx.

Historically India and Syria were always close to each other. Syria was also part of Non-Allignment Movement which was started by India and Egypt. India’s stance on the Syrian crisis has been subtle, India has maintained its opposition to external military intervention in Syria, and asked to solve the crisis by dialogue between all the parties. India has great interest in th region and any escaltion of violence will harm India’s interest. India’s interest include economic as well people who are working in this region for employement. India wants the Syrian crisis to end in a peaceful manner ensuring the human rights of the people. Despite the ongoing tension in the region, India is trying to maintain good relationship with Syria. India has had good ties with the current regime. in the midst of the Syrian crisis, India has maintained a diplomatic presence in Damascus with its embassy. It has even organized yoga classes in the Syria in between the whole crisis.

After the Paris terrorist attacks, Russia has started a war against the ISIS in syria. Due to worldwide protest against the ISIS a conference was organised in vienna in october for ending the syrian crisis. China, Egypt, France, Germany, Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States etc. were the members of the conference along with UN and EU. Conference ended with a nine-point joint communiqué. This was the third attempt to end the crisis, seriousness of this one is a more than the previous ones due to the recent paris terrorist attacks. There are other reasons which makes this attempt more serious than the previous ones;

  • First time an important actor Iran was part of theconference to decide the future of Syria;
  • This time Syria was excluded from the talks so that opposition parties can talk freely;
  • this conference was not dominated by US supported countries.

There are some very important decisions came out of the conference which will decide the future of the syria. The highlights of the communiqué are:

  • Syria’s unity, independence, territorial integrity, and secular character are fundamental.
  • State institutions will remain intact.
  • It is imperative to promote all efforts to end the war.
  • Humanitarian access will be ensured throughout the territory of Syria, and the participants will increase support for internally displaced persons, refugees, and their host countries.
  • The Islamic State (IS) and other terrorist groups, as designated by the UN Security Council, or agreed to by the participants, must be defeated.
  • Pursuant to the 2012 Geneva Communique and U.N. Security Council Resolution 2118, the participants invited the U.N. to convene representatives of the Government of Syria and the Syrian opposition for a political process leading to credible, inclusive, non-sectarian governance, followed by a new constitution and elections.
  • This political process will be Syrian led and Syrian owned, and the Syrian people will decide the future of Syria.

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