Women Problems in India
There are only two types of women — goddesses and doormats
says the famous artist Pablo Picasso. India is a land which worships women as
goddesses yet burn them for dowry and kill girls in the womb. Multiple problems
haunt them since the day they are born. The position of women has improved
multifold compared to the position centuries ago. The practices like child
marriage, sati, devadasi system, purdah system have almost disappeared. This
could be attributed to the changes brought about by science and technology,
education, social and political movements, modernization etc. Constitution of
India grants equal status and where necessary provides extra safeguards from
exploitation and injustice to women. It does not make any discrimination on the
ground of sex. Though the position of women has improved considerably that what
it used to be pre-independence era now they are beset with new stresses and
strains. Some major problems are analyzed below.
Female foeticide: Like many societies around the world
India is also a patriarchal in nature. There is an obsession for a male child
who is considered key to continue the family lineage. With the legalization of
abortion in India lead to selective abortion killing female fetus has become an
everyday reality. This lead to the skewed growth of population. The child sex
ratio has dropped from 945 females per 1000 males in 1992 to 927 females per
1000 males in2001. According to 2011 census the ratio has slightly improved to
933 females per 1000 males but this can’t be attributed as a major improvement
over a decade period. This skewed population growth has long term impact on the
society like female trafficking, kidnapping and increase in assault and rape
Discrimination in distribution of power and work : women is
not accepted as equal to male. They are made to confine to domestic works like
cooking, cleaning, washing etc termed as women’s work. Women workers are paid
less than the male workers. They were not allowed to take part in politics.
Reservation in politics, education, jobs has improved the condition of women.
Early marriage: A vast number of girls are married at
an early age. Approximately 60% of the rural girls are married before they are
18 and bear children before they are 19. Almost one third of the babies are born
with low birth weight. High illiteracy , ignorance to sexual behavior,
malnutrition makes pregnant girls take high risk of life. Girls who get married
before 18 are more likely to experience domestic violence compared to the those
Dowry: Max Radin has defined dowry as the property,
which a man receives from his wife or her family at the time of his marriage.
Dowry may be broadly defined as gifts and valuables received in marriage by the
bride, the bridegroom and his relatives. The age old practice of dowry has now
assumed a form of social evil. The desire of a parent to get his daughter
married in a higher and rich family makes them to accept all the conditions from
the boy’s side. It has caused unhappiness and misery to the bride’s family.
Women are ill-treated, disrespected, beaten and subjected to all sorts of
cruelties and sometimes leading to deaths. Dowry system degrades the self
respect of a women and reflects the inferior status of women in the society.
Dowry prohibition act 1961amended in 1986 was passed to curtail this but still
the practice continues to be in vogue.
Violence: Women are the most vulnerable section of the
society who are exposed to violence. Even in the country which has improved its
education level still very day we hear about the violence against the women.
This is the phenomena which is not only restricted to the rural areas the women
ev in cities are also equally vulnerable.. ganag rapes and rapes of women in the
houses and public transport is frequent phenemona in cites as developed as delhi
as well. As per the report  of the “Crime Record Bureau” of the Central
Home Ministry, crimes against women increased to a great extent in the year
1993-94. As per this report, in India on an average.