(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Geography - Indian Geography General: States & Union Territories (Part -2)

Indian Geography General
States & Union Territories (Part -2)

An adjunct of Delhi, Daryana practically remained anonymous until the First War of India’s independence in 1857. After the British crushed the rebellion, they deprived the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, the Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari in Haryana region, of their territories. These were either merged with British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind, making Haryana a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganization of Punjab on 1 November 1956. Haryana was born as a fullfledged state. Strategically located, Haryana is bounded by Uttar Pradesh I the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the North, and Rajasthan in the south. The National Capital of Delhi juts into Haryana. With just 1.37 per cent of the total geographical area and less than two percent of India’s population, Haryana has carved a place of distinction for itself. Whether it is agriculture or industry, canal irrigation or rural electrification, Haryana keeps marching towards modernity. The state enjoys the unique distinction of being among the first to provide electricity, metalled roads and portable drinking water to all its villagers. Ranked among the most prosperous states in India, Haryana has the second highest per capita income in the country, after Goa.


Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 65 per cent population in Haryana with the second largest contribution to the food bowl of the country. The quantum of foodgrains production, which was nearly 25.92 lakh tonee at the time of inception of the state is likely to touch 155.5 lakh tonne in 2009-10 due to crop intensification and increase in production of principal crops. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, barley and pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the state. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds, vegetable and fruits. Sustainable agriculture is being promoted through the propagation of resources conserving technologies and organic farming. Dhaincha and Moong have also been encouraged to maintain soil fertility.


The 1,429-strong network of canals constitutes the bedrock of the irrigation system in Haryana with 6.83 lakh tubewells and pumpsets playing no mean role. 1,92,980 hectare of land is under agriculture in the state. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966, the state had 4.91 lakh  tubewells in March, 2010. The major irrigation projects in the state are Western Yamuna Canal System, Bhakra Canal System, and Gurgaon Canal System. Giving practical shape to the lift irrigation system for the time in India, Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes through the JLN Canal Project. Haryana in among the beneficiaries of the multipurpose Sutlej-Beas project, sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan.

The Jui, Siwani, Loharu, and Jawahar Lal Nehru lift irrigation schemes have helped carry irrigation water against the gravity to the arid areas. Besides, sprinkler and drip irrigation have been introduced in the highly undulating and sandy tracks of Haryana. The construction work on the  Hathni Kund barrage has been completed at the cost of Rs. 192 crore. While Haryana and Uttar Pradesh would get additional water for irrigation purpose from the barrage, it will also help Delhi quench its thirst, to some extent. With a view to ensuring equitable distribution of water for irrigation and drinking purpose throughout the state, the Irrigation Department has constructed the 109 km Bhakra Main Line- Hansi Branch-Buttana Branch Multipurpose Link Channel at the cost of Rs. 392 crore. It has been desigred to take 2,086 cusecs of Ravi-Beas waters, being received through the Bhakra Main Line, to the Yamuna Canal and lift canal commands. During the monsoon season, the Hansi- Bhutana channel will help grow paddy, and raise the sub-soil water level in the adjoining areas. The construction work on the channel has been completed, except for the part linking it with the Bhakra Main Line. Water in the Hansi-Bhutana Canal can be released after the legal issues are resolved. And efforts are being make to resolve these issues.

With a view to utilizing the surplus waters ofthe Yamuna during the rainy season, the Dadupru- Shahbad Nalvi Canal project has been taken up at an estimated cost of Rs. 267.27 crore. The  construction work is in full swing on the project which will facilitate use of about 590 cusecs of surplus flood waters for irrigation purpose and recharging of the groundwater in 92,532 hectare falling in the districts of Yamuna Nagar, Ambala and Kurukshetra. The length of the canal along with its distribution system, is 185 km. The first phase of the project has already been inaugurated by the Haryana Chief Minister. Besides, the Shahbad Feeder and Shahbad Distributary have also been made functional.

The state governmental is setting up four lowheight dams namely, Kaushalya Dam, Dargrana Dam, Dewanwala Dam and Chhamla Dam, at an estimated cost of Rs. 180 crore, Rs. 63.69 crore, Rs. 132.7 crore and Rs. 20.41 crore, respectively, on the Ghaggar river and its tributaries to prevent wasteful flow of water and loss to property due to floods. The construction work on Kaushalaya Dam is nearing completion. Cigorous efforts are being made to bring the dam to its full height before the onset of the monsoon season to facilitate flow of the surplus waters into the spillway.


The first state I the country to have achieved hundred per cent rural electrification way back in 1970, Haryana is well on way to becoming power surplus from a power deficit state. The average power availability in 2009-10 was 875 lakh units per day, and the number of consumers 45.6 lakh. The total installed generation capacity available with Haryana is 5801.82 MW. Out of this, the Haryana Power Generation Corporation Limited has an installed generation capacity of 3230.5 MW, comprising 1367.8-MW Panipat Thermal Power Station, Panipat; 12oo-MW Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power Project, Hisar; 600MWDeen Bandhu Chhotu Ram Thermal Power Project, Hisar; and 62.7-MW WYC Hydro Electric Station, Yamuna Nagar. The balance comes from Haryana’s share in the central sector generating stations and from long-term power contracts.

The Haryana Government is well on its way to fulfilling the commitment made to the consumers by adding 5,000MWgeneration capacity during the 11th Five-Year Plan. With a view to meeting the growing demand of power in the State, new power projects are being set up.


Haryana is shaping into a modern Takshila. Making elementary education available at reachable distance to all children, and opening/ bringing a large number of institutes of higher learning, offering global standard education, the state is moving first and forward on the road to becoming a hub of education. According to 2001 census, the literacy rate in Haryana is 67.91 per cent against the India literacy rate 78.49 per cent. The rural population is served by primary schools/ sections within a distance of 1.06 km; middle schools within a distance of 1.23 km; high schools within a distance of 1.53 km; and senior secondary schools within a distance of 2.3 km.

The State Government is committed to bringing quality education to students nearer their homes. Today, 13,052 primary schools, 3,476 middle schools, 3,306 high schools, 2,576 senior secondary schools, 654 colleges, 151 polytechnical colleges, 141 engineering colleges, 157 MBA colleges, 54 MCA colleges, 32 B. Pharmacy colleges, 109 industrial training institutions, and eight universities are catering to the needs of the student in every nook and corner of the State. Besides, there are 112 Central Schools and 19 Jawahar Navodaya Schools in the state. The infrastructure created under the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) and the involvement of local self governments under centralized planning, have greatly contributed to better physical and basic facilities.


The investment and industry-friendly policies pursued by the state government have made Haryana the cynosure of all investing eyes, and put the state on threshold of industrial revolution. Small wonder, there aremore than 1,354 large and medium and 80,000 small-scale units dotting the industrial landscape in the State. Haryana today is the largest producer of passenger cars, tractors, motorcycles, bicycles, refrigerators, scientific instruments, etc. Besides, it is the largest exporter of basmati rice. Panipat handlooms and carpets are known all over world besides its lip-ticking Panchranga Achaar.

Between July 1991 and May 2008, 3,914 Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandums (IEMs) were filed. Out of these 2,274 IEMs were implemented with capital investment of Rs. 24,034 crore and generating jobs for 4,02,129 persons. Since the adoption of the new Industrial Policy in 2005, Haryana has received more than 100 proposals for setting up Special Economic Zones (SEZs), involving an investment of Rs. 2 lakh crore. On implementation, these would generate lakhs of jobs.


The healthcare has been made both affordable and reachable by setting up a state-wide network of district and sub-divisional hospitals. These are being beefed up with staff and equipment and deficiencies in referral services are being removed. The state-wide network of health centres includes 52 hospitals, 94 community healthcentres, 441 primary health centres, 2,465 sub-centres, 15 district TB Centres, 639 Ayurvedic, Homeopathy & Unani Centres, 16 urban health posts, the Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research at Rohtak, and Medical Colleges at Agroha (Hisar) and Mullana (Ambala). Besides, as many as 516 Delivery Huts have been set up to provide delivery services in clean and hygienic environment. Major infrastructural improvements are being made to upgrade the existing health institutions to the Indian Public Health standards.


Releasing the importance of Information Technology in the globalized world, the state government has formulated an IT Policy which provides several incentives for setting up Technology Parks, Cyber Cities, IT corridors and ITES industry in the State. Haryana has emerged as a preferred investment destination for IT industry as well. Out of the total 46 SEZs formally approved for the state, 35 are in the ITsector. Of these, three IT SEZs are in an advanced stage of completion. In addition, the state has okayed 33 proposals for setting up IT/Cyber Parks. The software exports from Haryana now aggregated Rs. 21,000 crore. The IT Department has taken concrete steps for the creation of the enabling infrastructure for connectivity, State Data Centre and front-end service providers in the form of Community Service Centres. Haryana is the first state to haye implemented its State-wide Area Network (SWAN) at the cost of Rs. 102,62 crore for voice, data and video transmission. Vertically, all district headquarters and 126 Sub Divisional/Block/ Tehsil headquarters are now covered through the SWAN. A position to use the connectivity services. Steps are being taken to expand the network to bring another 500 offices under the cover.


Fully committed to the welfare of the Scheduled Castes, Denitrified Tribes and Backward Classes, the Haryana Government has launched countless number of schemes for their social-economic empowerment. Some of these schemes are: Mahatama Gandhi Gramis Basti Yojana : Under this scheme, free residential plots of 100 sq yards each are allotted to eligible SCs, BCs (A) and BPL families. Mukhya Mantri Anusuchit Jatti Nirmal Basti Yojana : The main objective of the scheme is to provide basic infrastructure in villages having  more than 50 per cent SC population. Scheme for development of SC Bastis (New proposed Scheme under SCSP ); Indira Gandhi Drinking Water Scheme; India Gandhi Priyadarshini Viwah Shagun Yojna; Housing scheme for Scheduled Castes and Denotified Tribesm,  Incentive for Inter- Caste Marriage, Monetary relief for the victims of atrocities; encouragement award to panchayats; oriented institutes/training programmes.


Road and rail transport are the main carriers of passenger traffic in Haryana with aviation too playing a small role. Haryana is one state where all villages are linked with metalled roads. The length of the roads in the state is more than 35,303 km. Haryana Roadways number of buses is 3246. Then, railways play an important role in carrying both interstate and intra-state passengers. Kalka, Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panipat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Jhakal are important railway stations. There is a railway workshop at Jagadhari. Aviation too plays its role. There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.


A pioneer in highway tourism, Haryana has set up a vast network of 43 tourist complexes all over the state. Having 846-roomed accommodation in the various outfilts, Haryana Tourism attracts 63 lakh tourists every year. The state government as adopted a multi-pronged strategy to promote tourism. Tourist complexes have been set at strategic points along the highways passing through the state and tourist complexes have been developed around Delhi with the intent of promoting leisure tourism and conference tourism. Besides, tourist facilities have been set up at the district headquarters, and in important towns, to cater to the needs of tourists and local people. Some of the important tourist complexes are Surajkund and Baddhkal Lake near Delhi; Sultanpur birds sanctuary (Sultanpur), Sohna and Damdama in Gurgaon; and the ethnic India Rai, Blue Jay (Samalakha), Skylark (Panipat), Karna Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodal); Shama (Gurgaon); Jungle Babbler (Dharuhera); Gaurriyya (Bahadurgarh); Myna (Rohtak); Blue Bird (Hisar); Red Bishop (Panchkula); and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore).


Area : 55,673 sq km
Population : 6077,900 (Census 2001)
Capital : Shimla Principal
Language : Hindi and Pahari


Himachal situated in the heart of the Western Himalaya, identified as “Dev Bhumi” is believed to be the abode of Gods and Goddesses. The entire State is punctuated with stone as well as wood temples. The rich culture and traditions have made Himachal unique in itself. The shadowy valleys, rugged crags, glaciers and gigantic pines and roaring rivers and exquisite flora and fauna compose the symphony that is for ever Himachal. Himachal Pradesh came into being as a Union Territory in April 1948 as a result of integration of 30 princely states spread over 27,000 sq.km. In 1954, when another “C”class state of Bilaspur merged in Himachal Pradesh, its area increased to 28,241 sq.km. The position remained unchanged till 1966. on reorganisation of the State, the hilly areas of Punjab were merged with the State, increasing its size to 55,673 sq.km. Himachal Pradesh today is quoted as a successful model of not only hill area development but also for having realized development in education, health and social services.


Agriculture being the main occupation to the people of Himachal Pradesh has an important role the economy of the state. It provides direct employment to about 69 per cent of the main working population. Income from agriculture and allied sectors accounts for nearly 22.1 per cent of the total State Domestic Product. Out of the total geographical area of 55,673 sq. km., area of operational holding is about 9.79 lakh hectare owned by 9.14 lakh farmers. The marginal and small farmers possess 86.4 per cent of the total land holdings. The cultivated area in the state is only 10.4 per cent. About 80 percent of the area is rain fed and farmers depend on weather gods for rains. The food grain production in 2007-2008 has been 14.40 lakh M.tonnes.


Nature has endowed Himachal Pradesh with a wide range of agro-climatic conditions which have helped the farmers to cultivate large varieties of fruits ranging from temperate to sub-tropical. The main fruits under cultivation are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot and citrus fruits like mango, litchi, guava and strawberry. The total area under fruits, which was only 792 hectare in 1950 has increased to 2.23 lakh hectare now. Similarly, the fruit production has also increased from 1200 MT in 1950 to 6.95 lakh tonne in 2007. Horticulture generates gross domestic income of about Rs. 2200 crore annually. The Horticulture Technology Mission for the integrated development of horticulture is being implemented with a total outlay of Rs. 80 crore during the tenth five-year plan period. This Mission is based on the “end to end approach” taking into account the entire gamut of horticulture development with all backward and forward linkages in a holistic manner. Under this scheme, four centres of excellence are being created in different Agro-Climatic Zones with common facilities like water harvesting, vermicompost, greenhouses, organic farming and farm mechanization.


Roads are the lifelines and major means of communication in the predominantly hill State of Himachal Pradesh. Out of its 55,673 sq. km area, 36,700 sq. km is inhabited out of which 16,807 inhabited villages are scattered over slopes of numerous hills ranges and valleys. Realizing the importance of construction of roads for connecting production areas with market centres, Himachal Pradesh Government has decided to connect evey panchayat with roads in the next two years. When the Pradesh came into existence in 1948 there were 288 km. of roads. This number has gone up to 33,171 km by 15 August 2010.


Himachal Pradesh has immense hydropotential in its five river basins. Chenab, Rabi, Beas, Satluj and Yamuna which emanate from the western Himalayas pass through the State. The strategy of development in the power sector comprises expeditious actuallsation of the Hydro Electric Potential and introduction of Power sector reforms to bring efficiency in the sector and provide high quality power to the consumers at reasonable rates besides availability of abundant power to industrial and tourism sectors. The total identified potential in the State stands at 23,230 MW which is one fourth of India’s total hydro-power potential. Presently out of this 6,480 MW has already been harnessed by various agencies. Projects aggregating to 7,602 MW are under execution. It is on the cards that the State will have about 11,000 MW actualized potential by the end of 12th Plan. There is no denying this fact in view of the way the Government has embarked upon an accelerated Power Development Programme. The State of speedilymoving towards becoming a “Power State” of the Country. All the census villages in the State have been electrified and now left-out hamlets are being covered.


Industrial development has been given big boost in the State. Pollution free environment, abundant availability of power and rapidly developing infrastructure, peaceful atmosphere, and responsive and transparent administration are some of the added attraction and advantages that the entrepreneurs get in Himachal Pradesh. 349 large and medium and about 33,284 small-scale industrial units with an investment of about Rs. 4,822.54 crore have been set up in the state generating employment for 2 lakh persons. The sector is contributing 17 per cent to the State Domestic Product and the annual turnover on this account is about Rs. 6,000 crore. The State has formulated a new Industrial Policy and Incentive Rules, 2004, which provides attractive packages to the entrepreneurs for setting up Industrial Units in State. 42 industrial areas and 15 Industrial Estates with al basic amenities have been have been developed in the State.

With a view to providing umbrella support to exiting and new ventures, the State government has set up a State Level Single Window Clearance and Monitoring Authority (SLSWCMA) in Himachal Pradesh under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister to give permission to the entrepreneurs to set up industrial units in the State. This also solves all industry related and inter-departmental issues, monitors and reviews the progress of units already approved and proposed to be set up. This Authority is also focusing its attention on the development of quality infrastructure. Presently 7040 industrial units with an investment of about Rs. 27,380.99 crore envisaging employment to about 3 lakh person have been approved. A proposal is also underway for setting up Special Economic Zone in Kangra, Una and other districts with an estimated cost of Rs. 7,580 crore. The State Government is also giving several attractive incentives including exemptions in excise duty.


The Government of Himachal Pradesh has developed an IT Vision-2010 in collaboration with NASSCOM to make Himachal Pradesh an IT destination. Under the IT policy, it has been decided to accord the status of industry to all IT projects including IT related services and educational institutions. As such, all the incentives available for industrial units are also being given to all IT units, and IT related services.

The use of IT in governance is aimed at having SMART (Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent) government. The State Government official website at http://himachal.nic.in  is a web portal providing citizencentric services to the citizens and it has got  nterfaces for getting inputs from the grass root level. Ist phase of the H.P. State-wide Area Network (HIM SWAN) which has been completed has been connected to Internet. In the Phase-I of HIMSWAN, H.P. Secretariat Local Area Network has been established with a provision to provide LAN connectivity to every third person. In the Phase-II of HIMSWAN all the district headquarters will be connected with state headquarter. Software Technology Park and High Speed Data Connectivity Facility in Shimla has started its activities. All IT units in the State had been given Income Tax holiday up to year 2007. Information Technology Park is proposed to be set up in the State in Solan district.


Keeping in view the importance of biotechnology, special emphasis is being laid on exploiting the vast bio-technology potential available in the state. A separate Department of Bio-technology has been set up in the state. State’s own bio-technology policy has been formulated. All bio-technological units are entitled for incentives which have been allowed for industrial units. The State Government proposes to set up a Bio- Technology Park in Solan District.


Net sown area in the State was 5.83 lakh hectare till 2007. Villages have been provided with the facility of drinking water. Over 15,000 hand pumps have been installed in the State so far. For better reform in water supply and irrigation sector, the State Government has taken up aWASH project with the total cost of Rs. 339 crore for irrigation as well as for drinking water supply schemes with Gesellschaft for Technische Zuoammeuorbeit (GTZ).


The total geographical area of the state is 55,613 sq km. As per record, the total forest area is 37,033 sq. km. Out of this, 16,376sq.km. area is not fit for tree growth comprising alpine pastures, area under permanent snow, etc. The cultivable recorded forest area is only 20,657 sq. km. Efforts are being taken to bring maximum area under green cover by implementing State’s own projects, Government of India’s projects and also through external aided projects. The World Bank has also sanctioned a Rs. 365 crore Integrated Watershed Development Project for the Mid Himalayas. 545 panchayats of 42 developmental blocks in 10 districts would be covered during the next six years. There are 2 National Parks and 32 wildlife sanctuaries in the State. Total area under wildlife sanctuaries is 5562 sq. km; area under National Parks is 1440 sq. km and total area of Protected Area Networks is 7002 sq. km.


Himachal Pradesh has emerged as the third best State in terms of over-all development and performance. Himachal Pradesh has been adjudged number one State in Primary Education and teacher-student ratio. Himachal Pradesh has witnessed literacy revolution as it is second only to Kerala in literacy. The State has about 17,000 educational institutes, including three Universities, two Medical Colleges, professional and other educational institutions. The literacy percentage of the State according to 2001 Census is 77.13 which is much higher than the national average of 65.38. The State Government’s emphasis now is to ensure qualitative improvement in the education besides need based expansion. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan an ambitious project worth Rs. 532 crore is being evolved with the main objective of achieving universalisation of elementary education with the sole aim to spread the light of knowledge to every nook and corner of the State.


Tourism Industry in Himachal Pradesh has been given very high priority and the Government has developed an appropriate infrastructure for its development which includes provision of public utility services, roads, communication network, airports, transport facilities, water supply and civic amenities, etc. The State Government is poised to transform the State info “A Destination for All Seasons and All Reasons”. The State Tourism Development Corporation contributes 10 per cent to the Stateexchequer. The corporation contributes more then 200 crore per annum by way of Sales tax, luxury tax and passenger tax. In the year-2007, tourist arrivals in the State were 8.3 million. The State has a rich treasure of places of pilgrimage and of anthropological value. The State has also the pride of being the home to rishis like Vyas, Parashar, Vashitst, Markandy and Lames, etc. Hot water springs, historic forts, natural and man-made lakes, shepherds grazing their flock are sources of immense pleasure and joy to the tourist. The State Government is aiming at promoting sustainable tourism, encouraging private sector to develop tourism-related infrastructure in the State without disturbing the existing ecology and environment. The main thrust is on employment generation and promoting new concepts of tourism in the State. In order to increase the duration of the stay of the visitors/tourist, special emphasis is being laid on the development of activities based on tourism.

For the promotion and development of the State from the tourism point of view, the Government is focusing on the following areas : (1) History related tourism, (2) Identification of new areas/tourist destinations and promotion of village tourism. (3) Improvement of infrastructure, (4) Pilgrimage tourism. (5) Tribal tourism. (6) Eco-tourism. (7) Health tourism. (8) Promotion of adventure tourism. (9) Wildlife tourism. (10) Cultural tourism.


Area : *2,22,236 sq km
Population : 1,01,43,700 (2001 Census)
Capital : Srinagar (Summer) Principal
Languages : Urdu, Dogri, Kashmiri, Jammu (Winter) Pahari, Pujnaji, Ladakhi, Balti, Gojri and Dadri


According to the most popular legend that is also recorded in Rajtarangani and Nilmat Purana, two most authoritative books, Kashmir was once a large lake and it was Kashyap Rishi who drained off the water, making it a beautiful abode. But geologists have their own theory, which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramulla and thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on earth. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century B.C. which was later strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the valley in the early 6th century. The Valley regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain empire. After decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the valley had its own rulers. There was a sythethesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) extended his rule up to Bengal in the east. Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the north-west and Tibet in the north-east. Considered as the most famous Hindu ruler, he was known for constructing beautiful buildings. Islam came to Kashmir during 13th and 14th centuries AD. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu king Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion. Later Chaks overran Haider Shah Son of Zain-ul-Abedin. They continued to rule till 1586 when Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the feeble control of the Mughal emperor of the time, to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afganistan. The Valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years.

Name of Jammu figures in the Mahabharata. Recent finds of Harappan remains and artifacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 hill principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the Dogra rulers, conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the territory of Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh’s governors and had annexed when Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of the Indian Union on 26 October 1947. Jammu and Kashmir State is situated between 32°15' and 37°-05' north latitude and 72°-35' and 83°-20' longitude East. Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Shivalaik ranges, the third mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil. Geographically and culturally the state has three distinct regions-Jammu, Kashmit and Ladakh. Roads : The State is connected to the rest of the country through just one highway (NH 1A) 400 km stretch (approx) maintained by Border Roads Organization (BRO) of India. As Railway network of the State is in infancy stage, this has rendered the State totally dependent on road connectivity which provides links to the remote areas of the State. The Jammu-Srinagar National Highway (NH1A) is considered to be the most expensive road for maintenance in the world.

Out of 9933 Habitations only 2735 habitationsare yet to be connected. A total length of 18961 km of roads is being maintained by PWD. Out of this 9901 km is black topped, 4710 km metalled, 1257 km shingled, 2941 km fair-weather and 152 km is Jeepable. The road length maintained by the State PWD was 14858 km(12209) kmsurgaced and 2749 km un-surfaced during 2002-03. Road length maintained by Public Works Department ending March 2009 stood at 18961 km in J&K State. PWD road length per hundred sq. kms of area for the State gives the value of 18.70 km. However, (PWD) road length per lakh of population gives better picture of 154.34km. Number of vehicles per 100km of road length for the State stands 3525 vehicles for roads maintained by PWD during the year 2008-09. the number of vehicles has grown upto 6.68 lakh in 2008-09 from3.64 lakh in 2001-02 showing an exponential growth rate 8.00 percent per annum during the period. The road length at the end of the 2008- 9 maintained by PWD is 18,961 kms whereas the total public and private vehicular fleet of the State is 6,68,427 vehicles. The number of registered per lakh of people is 5,342.

At the end of March 2009 road length maintained by all the departments in the State was 40,818 km, of which 24,608 kms were surfaced and remaining 16,210 km un-surfaced. The road density (road length per 100 sq. km of area) of the State thus works out to be 40.26 km against the National Average of 104.6 km. With this road density, J&K is among the States with lowest road density in the country, thus hampering opening up of the economy and adversely affecting delivery of public services to the people. Moreover, there are huge inter-district variations in the rural road density.

Railways : Because of the difficult terrain Railway network has not developed as in other parts of the country. At present Jammu is the Rail head of the State and the line has been extended upto District Udhampur only (90 kms). The work on Udhampur-Qazigund rail line is under progress and intra rail link between Quzigund to Baramulla is complete. However the railway traffic has been thrown open from Baramulla to Quzigund.

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