(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Geography - Indian Geography Physical: India Physical (Part -3)

Indian Geography Physical
India Physical (Part -3)



River Valley Projects

Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Project.

Bhakra dam: One of the highest gravity in the world.

Govind Sagar Lake (H.P.) is a reservoir.


(A tributary of Indus).

Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. Irrigation, hydro electricity.
Thein Dam project Ravi (A tributary of Indus). Punjab Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Dulhasti project Chenab (A tributary of Indus). Jammu and Kashmir Part of the programme of cascade development for irrigation.
Salal project Chenab (A tributary of Indus). Jammu and Kashmir Irrigation.
Beas Project

Sharda Sahayak Project

Beas (A tributary of Indus).

Chuisot stream near Kalabagh

Joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Uttar Pradesh

Hydro electricity

Irrigation, hydroelectricity.

Banasagar project Son M.P., Bihar and U.p. Irrigation
Rihand Scheme Reservoir: Godind Ballabh Sagar (U.P.) Rihand Uttar Pradesh Hydroelectricity for the development of south eastern industrial region of U.P.
Damodar valley multipurpose project

Four dams: Tilaiya and Maithon (on the Barakar River), Konar (Konar River) and Panchet (Damodar River).

Damodar West Bengal (also shared by Jharkhand). Flood control, Irrigation, Hdroelectricity.
Mayurakshi project Mayurakshi West Bengal Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Hirakud, multipurpose Project (world’s longest mainstream dam). Mahanadi Orissa Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Poochampad Project Godavari Andhra Pradesh Irrigation.
Jayakwadi Project Godavari Maharashtra Irrigation.
Nagarjuna Sagar Krishna Andhra Pradesh Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Upper Krishna Project Krishna Karnataka Irrigation (Almatti dam is being constructed.
Tungabhadra multipurpose project Tungbhadra (A tributary Krishna). Joint venture of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Ghatprabha project Ghatprabha (A tributary of Krishna). Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Irrigation
Malprabha project Malprabha (A tributary
of Krishna).
Karnataka Irrigation
Bima project Bhima Maharashtra Irrigation
Mettur project Cauvery Tamil Nadu Hydroelectricity
Shivasamudram Scheme On Cauvery Falls Karnataka Hydroelectricity
Kundah project Kundah Tamil Nadu Hydroelectricity
Sharavati Project Sharavati (near Jog
Karnataka Hydroelectricity
Chambal project

(Gandhi Sagar Dam (M.P.), Rana Pratap Sagar and Jawahar Sagar Dam or Kota Dam.

Chambal (A tributary of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Kakrapara Project Tapi Gujarat Irrigation
Ukai Project Tapi Gujarat Irrigation
Sardar Sarovar Project Narmada Gujarat, M.P. Rajasthan Maharashtra Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Tawa project Tawa (A tributary of Narmada. Madhya Pradesh Irrigation
Mahi Project (Jamnalal Bajaj Sagar) Mahi Gujarat Irrigation
Matatila project Betwa Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh Irrigation, hydroelectricity

Food Crops Distribution

Conditions Required Distribution Conditions Required Distribution
Temperature : 100 to 210C during wosing 350 to 370C during harvest.

Rainfall : 100 to 200 cm.
Soil: Heavy clay and Clayey loam is best suited.

  1. West Bengal
  2. U.P.
  3. Andhra Pradesh
  4. Punjab
  5. Tamil Nadu
  6. M P
  7. Orissa
  8. Bihar
  9. Assam
  10. Karnataka
  11. Maharashtra
  12. Haryana
  13. Kerala
Temperature : 10-150C (winter) 210 - 260C (summer)

Rainfall : 15 to 75 cm.
Soil: Well drained fertile, friable loams, and clayey laoms.

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Punjab
  3. Haryana
  4. Madhya Pradesh
  5. Rajasthan
  6. Bihar
  7. Gujarat
  8. Maharashtra


Cash Crops


Second important fibre crop of India, crop of hot and humid climate.

Temperature: 240C- 350C

Rainfall: heavy rainfall of above 150cm with 80-90 percent of relative humidity.

Soil: Alluvial soil also grown in light sandy or clayey loams.

  1. West Bengal (70 percent of the production, over 60 percent of the area.
  2. Bihar
  3. Assam
  4. Orissa
  5. U.P.
  6. Maharashtra
  7. Kerala (Coastal areas)


Temperature: 200C - 260C

Rainfall: 150 cm or irrigation facilities with high humidity.

Soil: Deep rich, loamy soils are ideal; black soil is also suitable.

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Tamil Nadu (highest yield / hectare)
  4. Karnataka
  5. Andhra Pradesh
  6. Gujarat
  7. Bihar
  8. Haryana
  9. Punjab


Plant of tropical and sub-tropical climates and frost is harmful.

Temperature: 160C- 400C

Rainfall: 50 cm or irrigation facilities.

Soil: well-drained, friable sandy loam.

  1. Gujarat (90 percent of Tobacco from Vadodara and Kheda districts).
  2. Andhra Pradesh (West and East G o d a v a r i , Prakasham, Kurnool and Nellore are the main producing

Other areas of minor production (a) Uttar Pradesh (b) Karnataka (c) West Bengal.

Plantation Crops

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