(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Geography - World Geography General: Asia

World Geography General


Area: 43,608,000 million sq. km (30% of total land surface of the earth.)

Population : 3588.9 million

Latitudes : 10011'S to 81012'N

Only some of the Indonesian group of Islands is located to the south of equator in the Southern Hemisphere.

Longitude : 2602'E to 169040'W in the east crossing 1800 longitude.

North-South Extent : 6,440 km East-West Extent : 9,650 km


Important Seas

Name Location Part of Ocean
Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and East Siberian Sea North of Russia Arctic Ocean
Bering Sea Northerst of Russia Pacific Ocean
Sea of Okhotsk East of Russia Pacific Ocean
Sea of Japan West of Japan Pacific Ocean
Yellow Sea West of Korea Pacific Ocean
East China Sea East of China Pacific Ocean
South China Sea South of China Pacific Ocean
Sulu Sea West of the Philippines Island Pacific Ocean
Celebes Sea North of Celebes Island Pacific Ocean
Banda Sea East of Celebes Island Pacific Ocean
Flores Sea South of Celebes Sea Pacific Ocean
Molucca Sea East of Celebes Island Pacific Ocean
Java Sea North of Java Pacific Ocean
Timor Sea Northwest of Australia Pacific Ocean
Arafura Sea North of Australia South Pacific Ocean
Bay of Bengal East of the Indian Peninsula Indian Ocean
Arabian Sea West of the Indian Peninsula Indian Ocean
Red Sea Separates Asia from Africa Indian Ocean

Important Gulfs

Name Location Part of Ocean
Gulf of Ob Between Yamal Peninsula and Gyda Peninsula Arctic Ocean
Gulf of Chihli East of China Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Gulf of Tonkin Eastof Vietnam South China Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Gulf of Thailand South of Thailand South China Sea
Persian Gulf Separates Arabian Peninsula from the Plateau of Iran Indian Ocean
Gulf of Oman Between Iranian Plateau and Oman Indian Ocean
Gulf of Aden Between Somalia and Yemen Indian Ocean
Gulf of Aquaba Between Aquaba (Jordan) and Sinai Peninsula (Egypt). Red Sea
Severnaya Islands North of Russia Arctic Ocean
New Siberian Islands North of Russia Between Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea, Arctic Ocean
Wrangel Islands North of Russia East Siberian Sea, Arctic Ocean
Kurile Islands
  • An extension of the volcanic Kamchatka Peninsula
Between Kamchatka Peninsula and Hokkaido Island Pacific Ocean
Ryukyu Island
  • An example of submerged island.
Between Kyushu and Taiwan Pasific Ocean
Bonin Island East of Ryuky Island Pasific Ocean
Babuyan Islands Between Taiwan and Luzon (Philippines) Pasific Ocean
Spartly and Parcel
A group of atolls in South China Sea Pasific Ocean
  • A disputed group of islands claimed by China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan, Philippines, Brunei because of the vast reserves of oil beneth these islands

The Philippines archipelago Lying 1200 km east of Vietnam and 150 north of the equator.


  • The largest and the important island of the Philippines is known as the ‘Rice Bowl of Philippines’.

  • Mount Mayon, the only active volcano of the Philippines, is located in the Luzon.

  • Good quality cigar tobaco is grown in the northern Luzon (mainly Cagayan Valley).

  • Igorot tribe lives in the northern region of island. Mindano Island

  • Second largest island located in southern part of the Philippines.

  • Mount Apo, a dormant volcano on Mindano, is the
    country’s highest peak.

Pasific Ocean

Important Straits

Name Separates Connects
Bering Strait Asia and North America East Siberian Sea with Bering Sea
La Parouse Strait Sakhalin Island and Hokkaido Island Sea of Okhotsk with Sea of Japan
Tata Strait Eastern Russia and Sakhalin Sea of Okhotsk with Sea of Japan
Korea Strait South Korea and Kyushu (Japan) Yellow Sea with Sea of Japan
Formosa Strait (Taiwan Strait) Taiwan and China East China Sea with South China Sea
Luzon Strait Taiwan and Luzon (Philippines) South China Sea with Pacific Ocean.
Makassar Strait Borneo (Kalimantan) and Celebes Island Celebes Sea with Java Sea.
Sundra Strait Java and Sumatra Java Sea with India Ocean
Malacca Strait
  • One of the great shipping corridors of the world
Malaya Peninsula and Sumatra Java Sea with Bay of Bengal
Strait of Jahore Singapore and Malaysia South China Sea with strait of
Strait of Hormuz UAE and Iran Persian Gulf with Gulf of Oman.
Strait of Bosporus Asia and Europe Black Sea with Sea of Marmara.
Strait of Dardanelles Asia and Europe Sea of Marmara with Mediterranean

Important Mountains

The Himalayan Mountain Range
  • Lies to the north of Indo Gangetic Plain, is an example of mountain range which formed in the same age with same process.
  • An example of fold mountain of Alpine orogeny.
  • Mount Everest (8,848 m) is the highest peak, located in Nepal.
Karakoram Range
  • Lies in the north of the Himalaya.
  • Godwin Austen (K2) is the highest peak of Karakoram
Kailash Range
  • East of Karakoram Range in Tibet.
Kunlun Shan Range
  • Lies to the north of Tibet Plateau and to the South of the desert basin of Tarim in China.
  • Lies to the north of Tarim basin
Great Khingan Mountain
  • The Tien Shan extends to the north east and reaches the Amur River under the name of Great Khingan Mountains.
Altai Mountain

Hangay Mountain Sayan Mountain

  • Lies to the north of Tienshan in succession in a more or less east-west direction.
Yablonovy Range, Stanovoy Range, Dzhugzur Range and Kolyama Range
  • Lies to the north east of Atlai Range in the eastern Siberia.
Verkhoyansk Range
  • Lies to the east of the Lena River separates Central Siberian Plateau from the eastern Siberian regio.
Pegu Yoma
  • The Irrawaddy and Sittang are divided in their middle course by this mountain range.
Arakan Yoma
  • Running southwards, is the western range of Myanmar.
  • A range of the Himalaya which further countinues through the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Java and other Indonesian islands.

The Mountain Regions to the West of the Pamir

Hindukush Mountains
  • Running westwards from the Pamir Knot to the Elburz Mountains in Iran.
Elburz Mountains
  • Hindukush Mountain joins the Armenian Knot near the Caspian Sea under the name of Elburz Mountains in Iran.
Sulaiman Range
  • It proceeds southwards from the Pamir Knot along the border between Pakistan and Afganistan.
  • The most famous pass across this mountain wall is the Khyber, linking Pakistan with Afghanistan.
Kirthar Range
  • Sulaiman Range takes the name of Kirthan in the south.
Makran Range
  • Kirthan Range turns westward on the Arabian Sea coast and assumes the name of Makran.
  • Running to the northwest of Makran, ultimately ends up in the Armenian Knot.
Pontic Mountain Range
  • Running to the northwest of Armenian Knot in Turkey.
Taurus Mountain Range
  • Running to the southwest of Armenian Knot along the Mediterranean coast in Turkey.

Important Plateaus and Basins

Ladakh Plateau (Inter- montane Plateau)
  • Lies between the Karakoram in the north and the Himalayas in the south.
Tibet Plateau (Inter- montane Plateau)
  • Enclosed to the south by the Himalays, to the north by the Kunlun Shan Range is the highest tableland (4,800 m) of Tibet.
  • The largest plateau in the world with an average altitude of 4,250 m.
Yunan Plateau
  • Lies to the southeast of the Tibet Plateau is separated from the fertile Szechuan basin by the range of mountains.
Takla Makan Desert Plateau and Tarim Basin
  • An intermontane desert basin lies between the Tienshan in the north and Kunlun Shan in the south.
  • Convectie and ‘Karaburan’ blows in the arid regions.
Pamir Plateau
  • Situated to the northwest of the Indian sub-continent.
  • Meeting point for the central Asian mountain ranges which make up the skeleton of the continent.
  • The highest plateau of the world with an altitude of 4,900 m is also known as ‘roof of the world’.
Armenian Plateau
  • Situated between the Caspian Sea and Black Sea.
  • Pamir-like plateau from where many mountain ranges spread out, therefore called the Armenian Knot.
Iranian Plateau
  • The central desert plateau of Iran is enclosed by Zagros in the south and west and Elburz in the north.
Mongolian Plateau
  • A high plateau between 1,500 and 1,800 m above sea level, is situated between the Khinghan in the east, Altunshan and Tien Shan in the south, Altai in the west and Yablonovy in the north.
Urfan Basin
  • Lies to the west of Mongolian Plateau.
Aldan Plateau
  • Lies to the north west of Stanovoy Mountain
Indo-China Plateau
  • Region of Southeast Asia, extends over Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Myanmar.
Shan Plateau
  • Lies between Pegu Yoma and Arkan Yoma in the eastern part of Myanmar.
  • The Salween River flows through the plateau.
  • Region important for precious stone (Rubies), silver, lead, and tin and tungsten.
Deccan Plateau
  • Lies to the south of Indo Gangetic plain, between the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats.
  • North western part of Deccan Plateau is an example of lava Plateau or Plateau of accumulation
Baluchistan Plateau
  • A desert plateau (900 m high) situated to the west of Kirthar Range
Arabian Plateau
  • An example of titled block extending over the entire Arabian Peninsula.
Plateau of Antolia of Asia Minor or Turkey
  • Enclosed between Pontic Mountain Ranges in the north west and Tauras in the south west.
  • A vast plateau with an average height of 1,200 m, broken by ridges and volcanic outcrops.
  • The main rivers draining off the plateau are Tigris and Euphrates.
Loess Plateau
  • The Plateau region is surrounded by Great Plain in the east, Qining Mountains in the south and Ordos Plateau in the north.
  • Loess is the wind borne fine dust, deposited beyond the deserts limits and is the fine loam, rich in lime.
  • Shansi and Shensi region of loess plateau is known for its extensive coal reserves.
  • The Hwang Ho flows through loess land.
Dzungarian Basin
  • Relatively low lying land between the Tien Shan and Altai Range in Mongolia.
  • A sort of door between China and Mongolia in the east and Tarim lowland in the west.
Mesopotamian Plain
  • Formed by the Tigris and Euphrates River in Iraq.
  • One of the major regions where wheat, barley, tobacco and cotton is grown.
Gobi Desert
  • Situated to the southeast of Mongolians Plateau and extends into China.
  • Aridity due to interior location shows the features of undulating sand sea as well as barren sheets or rock and stone.

Important Land Regions

Manchurian Plain
  • Formed by the Amur River and its tributaries in the northern part of China.
  • Important cities Anshan, Shenyag and Fushun of Mukden Triangle are located.
Great Plain of China
  • Formed by the Hwang-Ho and Yangtze Kiang Rivers in the eastern China.
Turanian Plain
  • Formed by the two principal Asian rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.
  • It is an example of Basin plain which covers the region of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.
West Siberian Plain
  • It extends over 3,200 km eastwards from the Urals to the Yenisey River and is one of the largest lowlands in the world.
Taaidam Basin
  • Lies between Altun Shan and Kunlun Shan and to the north east of Central Tibetan Plateau
  • The major region of oil fields.
Szechuan Basin
  • Situated to the north of Yunan Plateau is the fertile basin where the Yangtze Kiang River is joined by three major tributaries known as the Red Basin because of its coloured sandstone.
  • Red basin of Szechuan is the leading rice producing region and is called the ‘Rice Bowl of China’.


  • Largest continuous sand desert in the southern part of Saudi Arabia.
  • It is also called ‘Empty Quarter’.
Al Nafud Desert
  • Deserts land in the north eastern region of Saudi Arabia.


  • Largest Salt desert of the world situated in the northern Iran.
  • Barren desert of Iran situated in the eastern part of country.

Important Lakes

Lake Baikal
  • Located in the southern part of eastern Siberia and to the west of Yablonovy Range in Russia.
  • Source of the Lena River.
  • It is the deepest continental body of water on Earth having a maximum depth of 1,620 m.
Lake Balkash
  • Located in Kazakhastan.
  • North of the Lake is Karaganda coal basin.
Aral Sea
  • Located between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
  • Two principal Asian rivers, the Amu Darya and Syr Darya flow through semi arid depression into the sea.
Lake Van Golu
  • The largest lake of Turkey.
  • One of the saltiest lake in the world.
Lake Turnool
  • The northernmost extent of East African Rift Valley.
  • Located in the Anatolia Peninsula of Turkey.
Lake Asad
  • Located in Syria.
Dead Sea
  • It is an example of rift valley lake which lies along the West Bank of Jordan.
  • One of the deepest points of Asia is the world’s lowest lake.
  • The Jordan river flows into the Dead Sea, which has no outlet, and evaportation balances the inflow
Sea of Gallilee
  • Lava flow blocked the Jordan Valley and formed an elongated lake in Israel.
  • The lave-blocked lake is linked to the Dead Sea through the Jordan River.
Lake Tonle Sap
  • Located in central lowland of Cambodia.
Lake Toba
  • Situated in Sumatra (Indonesia).
  • An example of crater of caldera lake.
Lop Nor
  • Salt lake in China, site of numerous nuclear testing.
  • Tarim river drains into the lake.
Caspian Sea
  • The largest lake in the world which is five times larger than the Lake Superior.
  • It separates Europe from Asia.

Important Rivers





Tributaries : Irtysh, Tobolsk

Altai Mountain Gulf of Ob
Yenisey Tannuala Mountain Arctic Ocean
Lena Lake Baikal Arctic Ocean
Kolyma Kolyma Range East Siberain Sea

Tributary : Sungari River.

Confluence of Shika Argun River. Tatar Strait
  • Forms a well defined border between North Korea and the Eastern Russia
  Korea Bay (Yellow Sea)
Hwang Ho Tibetan Plateau The river’s course was
diverted away into the
Gulf of Pohai instead of
the Yellow Sea.
Yangtse Kiang
  • It is the longest river of Asia.
  • It flows through Szechuan basin.
  • Shangai and Wuhan, are the important cities of China lying along the river.
Tibetan Plateau East China Sea.
Si Kiang
  • More than half of the total silk production in China comes from the Yangtse Kiang and Si Kiang deltas.
Eastern Yunan (China) South China Sea.
  • About 75% of the Chinese live in fertile river basin of Hwang Ho, Yangtse Kiang.
  • It flows through China, Thailand-Laos border, Cambodia and Vietnam over 4,160 km to South China Sea.
  • Longest river in South East Asia.
  • In Laos, the Mekong forms the western boundary with Thailand.
  • Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minch cities are situated on the bank of river.
  • Mekong valley of south Vietnam is devoted to rice cultivation.
  • Delta: Arcuate, is (characterised by funnel shaped distributaries, stabled by growth of mangrove vegetation) lying in Vietnam.
Tibetan highlands South China Sea
Chao Phraya
  • City located : Bangkok
  • The principal river of Thailand.
  • The river’s delta has rich alluvial soil which is used almost entirely for rice and has very high density of population.
  Gulf of Thailand
  • It flows through China & Shan Plateau (Myanmar) over 2,090 km.
  • Longest river of Myanmar.
Tibetian highlands Gulf of Martaban

Tributary : Chindwin

City located : Mandalay

  • Major river of the country referred to as the ‘Life lije of Myanmar’
  • Central basin between Irrawaddy and Chindwin around Mandalay is very important for wheat and cotton cultivation.
  • Delta region of Irrawaddy and Sittang, known as the ‘Rice Bowl of Mayanmar’.
North Myanmar Bay of Bengal
  • Brahmputra is called Tsang-Po in Tibet before entering in India.
Rises in galcier about 100 km south east of Mansarovar
Bay of Bengal
  • It enter Bangladesh near Bhubri.
  • In the upper course Alaknanda and Bhagirathi River meet at Devprayag and from Ganga
Gangotri Glacier Bay of Bengal
  • One of the world’s largest rivers flow south-eastwards acros the country then drain into Arabian Sea through Attock plains of Pakistan
Mansarovar lake Arabian Sea
Tigris and Eupharates
  • These two rivers dominate Iraq and flow south-eastwards across the country then drain into the Persian Gulf via a combined estuary.
  • They meet at Shatt-al-Arab in Iraq.
  Persian Gulf
Amu Darya and Syr Darya
  • The principal rivers of Central Asia flow in to the Aral Sea through the semi and depression.

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